3月5日,第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议在北京人民大会堂开幕。 [新华社]

3月5日,第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议在北京人民大会堂开幕。 [新华社]
The fifth session of the 12th National People's Congress opens at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, capital of China, March 5, 2017. [Photo/Xinhua]

关于2016年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2017年国民经济和社会发展计划草案的报告

Report on the Implementation of the 2016 Plan for National Economic and Social Development and on the 2017 Draft Plan for National Economic and Social Development

——2017年3月5日在第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议上

Delivered at the Fifth Session of the Twelfth National People's Congress on March 5, 2017

国家发展和改革委员会

National Development and Reform Commission

各位代表: Esteemed Deputies,
受国务院委托,现将2016年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2017年国民经济和社会发展计划草案提请十二届全国人大五次会议审议,并请全国政协各位委员提出意见。 The National Development and Reform Commission has been entrusted by the State Council to submit this report on the implementation of the 2016 plan and on the 2017 draft plan for national economic and social development to the Fifth Session of the Twelfth National People's Congress (NPC) for your deliberation and for comments from the members of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).
一、2016年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况 I. Implementation of the 2016 Plan for National Economic and Social Development
去年以来,国内外环境复杂严峻,世界经济艰难复苏,国内经济下行压力依然较大。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各地区各部门坚持稳中求进工作总基调,坚持新发展理念,认真执行十二届全国人大四次会议审议批准的2016年国民经济和社会发展计划,落实全国人大财政经济委员会的审查意见,以推进供给侧结构性改革为主线,适度扩大总需求,坚定推进改革,妥善应对风险挑战,引导形成良好社会预期,扎实做好各项工作,经济社会保持平稳健康发展,“十三五”实现良好开局,计划执行情况总体是好的。 Last year, conditions both at home and abroad were complex and challenging; the global economic recovery struggled to take effect while downward pressure on China's economy remained significant. However, under the firm leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, all regions and departments continued to follow the general principle of making progress while keeping performance stable, upheld the new development philosophy, earnestly implemented the 2016 plan approved at the Fourth Session of the Twelfth NPC, and acted in line with the review of the plan by the NPC's Financial and Economic Affairs Committee. In accordance with the keynote of advancing supply-side structural reform, we appropriately increased aggregate demand, advanced reform with determination, responded effectively to risks and challenges, guided public expectations to ensure they remained positive, and worked hard to deliver a good performance in all areas of work. As a result, economic and social development remained stable and healthy, the 13th Five-Year Plan got off to a good start, and implementation of the 2016 Plan for National Economic and Social Development was successful overall.
(一)创新和加强宏观调控,经济运行保持在合理区间。在区间调控基础上,加强定向调控、相机调控,积极的财政政策力度加大,稳健的货币政策灵活适度,确保经济平稳运行。国内生产总值达到74.41万亿元,增长6.7%,符合预期。

1. We developed new and better ways of conducting macro regulation to keep the economy operating within an appropriate range.

On the basis of range-based regulation, we strengthened targeted and well-timed regulation and pursued a more proactive fiscal policy as well as a prudent monetary policy that retained an appropriate degree of flexibility so as to ensure that economic performance was stable. China's gross domestic product (GDP) rose to 74.41 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.7%, meeting our projected target.

图表1:2016年各季度国内生产总值和经济增长率 新华社发

Figure 1. Quarterly GDP and Growth Rate in 2016
一是消费基础作用进一步增强。促进消费带动转型升级的行动方案出台,“十大扩消费行动”全面推进。促进绿色消费、实体零售创新转型、交通物流融合发展的政策出台实施。进一步扩大旅游文化体育健康养老教育培训等领域消费的意见发布实施,服务消费蓬勃兴起,汽车等实物消费扩大升级。激发重点群体活力带动城乡居民增收的实施意见出台,居民消费能力持续提升。社会消费品零售总额增长10.4%。消费在经济增长中发挥主要拉动作用,贡献率达到64.6%,消费和投资的比例关系进一步改善。

1) Consumption played a more fundamental role.

The action plan to stimulate industrial transformation and upgrading through increased consumption was formulated, and the Ten Initiatives for Boosting Consumer Spending were implemented. We implemented the policies for promoting green consumption, transformation of physical retail businesses through innovation, and integrated development of transportation and logistics. The guidelines on further boosting consumer spending in tourism, culture, sports, health, elderly care, education, and training services were promulgated and implemented; the consumption of services flourished; and consumer spending on automobiles and other physical goods was increased and upgraded. We formulated the guidelines on providing incentives to key groups to promote an overall increase in urban and rural incomes, and people's ability to consume continued to increase. Total retail sales of consumer goods for the year rose by 10.4%. Consumption served as a major driver of economic growth, making a 64.6% contribution. And there was a further improvement in the ratio between consumption and investment.

专栏1:十大扩消费行动 新华社发

Box 1: Ten Initiatives for Boosting Consumer Spending
二是投资保持稳定增长。围绕补短板、调结构、增供给,努力扩大合理有效投资。中央预算内投资结构继续优化,政府投资项目储备库和三年滚动投资计划初步形成,重大工程建设加快推进。着力调动民间投资积极性,制定促进民间投资“26条”政策,加大政府和社会资本合作(PPP)模式推广力度。全社会固定资产投资增长7.9%,民间投资占固定资产投资(不含农户)比重为61.2%。

2) Investment sustained steady growth.

Strengthening areas of weakness, making structural adjustment, and increasing supply were our primary focus in working to increase rational and effective investment. We further improved the structure of investments falling within the central government budget, took initial steps to set up the reserve of government investment projects and formulate the three-year rolling investment plan, and stepped up the construction of major projects. We channeled great energy into stimulating private investment, formulated a 26-point policy to ensure its sound development, and worked to expand the application of public-private partnership (PPP) models. Total fixed-asset investment for the year rose by 7.9%, of which 61.2% came from nongovernmental sources (excluding rural households).

专栏2:促进民间投资健康发展 新华社发

Box 2: Measures for Encouraging Sound Development of Private Investment
三是就业形势总体较好。基层就业社保服务设施和公共实训基地建设加快推进,高校毕业生和化解过剩产能职工就业服务工作力度加大,支持农民工等人员返乡创业试点持续推进。全年城镇新增就业1314万人,年末城镇登记失业率4.02%。

3) The overall employment situation remained positive.

We sped up efforts to develop community-level facilities providing employment and social security services and to establish public vocational training centers, provided better services to college graduates as well as to workers laid off due to the scaling-down of overcapacity, and continued to advance pilot projects to support rural migrant workers returning home to set up businesses. An additional 13.14 million urban jobs were created over the year, and the registered urban unemployment rate stood at 4.02% at the end of 2016.

图表2:城镇新增就业 新华社发

Figure 2. Urban Jobs Created
四是价格总水平基本稳定。大宗商品价格调控进一步强化,生猪价格调控有效开展,汛期、重点节假日蔬菜等重要商品价格监测预警和调控监管加强。价格监管和反垄断执法强力推进,先后查处了数起反垄断案件。全年居民消费价格上涨2.0%。

4) Overall prices were generally stable.

We increased regulation over commodity prices, effectively carried out regulation over the price of hogs, and strengthened monitoring, early warning, regulation, and oversight over the prices of major commodities such as vegetables during the flood season and major holidays. Oversight over pricing was tightened up and law enforcement efforts to counter monopolistic pricing intensified with numerous cases being investigated and dealt with. The consumer price index (CPI) for the year rose by 2.0%.

五是各类风险挑战得到妥善应对。加强对外投资活动真实性审查,引导对外投资健康有序发展。按照市场化、法治化原则防范化解债券违约风险。因城因地施策,分类调控房地产市场。防范应对部分地区特别是长江流域发生的严重洪涝等灾害,及时有力开展抢险救灾,最大限度降低了灾害损失,恢复重建有序进行。

5) Risks and challenges were handled appropriately.

We stepped up reviews to verify the authenticity of outbound investment projects and worked to ensure the sound and orderly development of overall outbound investment. We employed market-oriented, law-based measures to guard against and defuse bond default risks. Policies tailored to local conditions were implemented to regulate the real estate market on a per-category basis. We worked to guard against and deal with severe flooding in some regions, particularly the Yangtze basin, as well as other natural disasters, and acted quickly to provide effective rescue and relief so as to minimize damage, and ensure recovery and reconstruction efforts proceeded in an orderly manner.

(二)扎实推进供给侧结构性改革,“三去一降一补”五大重点任务初见成效。加强政策引导和支持,建立工作推进机制,去产能、去库存、去杠杆、降成本、补短板取得初步成效。

2. We worked to secure solid progress in supply-side structural reform,achieving initial success in the five priority tasks of cutting overcapacity, reducing excess inventory, deleveraging, lowering costs, and strengthening points of weakness.

By enhancing policy guidance and support and establishing an effective work mechanism, we achieved preliminary progress in our efforts to carry out the five priority tasks.

一是去产能年度任务提前超额完成。《国务院关于钢铁行业化解过剩产能实现脱困发展的意见》(国发〔2016〕6号)和《国务院关于煤炭行业化解过剩产能实现脱困发展的意见》(国发〔2016〕7号)印发实施。组织开展了淘汰落后、违法违规建设项目清理、联合执法三个专项行动,严格控制新增产能,加快淘汰落后产能,有序引导过剩产能退出。积极做好职工安置和债务处置,推进企业兼并重组、转型升级和布局优化。及时妥善应对供需调整、价格波动影响。2016年退出钢铁和煤炭产能分别超过6500万吨和2.9亿吨,超额完成年度目标任务。钢铁、煤炭企业效益转好,拖欠减少,现金流紧张、安全投入欠账、工资欠发缓发等问题得到一定缓解,行业运行状况和市场预期有所改善。

1) Annual targets for cutting overcapacity were met ahead of schedule and were surpassed.

The State Council's Guidelines on Addressing Overcapacity and Achieving a Turnaround in the Steel Industry (G.F. [2016] No. 6) and the State Council's Guidelines on Addressing Overcapacity and Achieving a Turnaround in the Coal Industry (G.F. [2016] No. 7) were published and implemented. We launched three initiatives which focused on shutting down outdated production facilities, dealing with projects that violated laws and regulations, and carrying out coordinated law enforcement, thereby strictly controlling the expansion of production capacity, ensuring the shutting down of outdated production facilities was accelerated, and guiding the orderly elimination of overcapacity. We made appropriate arrangements to ensure that laid-off employees were resettled and provided employment and that enterprise debts were properly handled; and we encouraged businesses affected by overcapacity to merge, restructure, transform, and upgrade, or optimize business distribution.

We took timely and appropriate action in responding to the effects of adjustments in supply and demand and price fluctuations. In 2016, we reduced excess production capacity by over 65 million metric tons of steel and over 290 million metric tons of coal; both numbers surpassed the targets for the year. The steel and coal industries operated more efficiently: cases of companies being in arrears were reduced, cash-flow problems were eased, and problems of insufficient investment in workplace safety, overdue wages, and outstanding payments were alleviated to some extent. Overall, the performance of both industries as well as market expectations improved.

二是去库存加快推进。推动农业转移人口落户城镇,满足新市民住房需求,年末商品住宅待售面积比上年末减少4991万平方米。棚户区住房改造货币化安置比例进一步提高,全年货币化安置294万户,占全年棚改开工量的48.5%,比2015年提高18.6个百分点。

2) Work to cut excess inventory surged ahead.

We promoted the granting of urban residency to people who have moved to cities from rural areas and worked to ensure the housing needs of new urban residents were met, such that by the end of 2016, the area of commodity housing for sale was 49.91 million square meters less than it was at the end of 2015. We further expanded the use of direct monetary housing compensation for people displaced by the rebuilding of run-down urban areas. 2.94 million households received monetary housing compensation over the year, accounting for 48.5% of the year's newly-commenced projects to rebuild run-down urban areas; this marked an increase of 18.6 percentage points over 2015.

三是去杠杆成效初步显现。《国务院关于积极稳妥降低企业杠杆率的意见》(国发〔2016〕54号)印发实施。采取兼并重组、市场化法治化债转股、发展股权融资等综合性措施,积极稳妥降低企业杠杆率。启动市场化银行债权转股权,截至2016年底,多家商业银行通过实施机构共选择了资产负债率偏高但具有发展前景的行业龙头企业20家,自主协商达成债转股框架协议,协议金额超过2500亿元。2016年末,全国规模以上工业企业资产负债率55.8%,同比下降0.4个百分点。

3) Efforts to deleverage delivered initial results.

The State Council's Guidelines on Proactively yet Prudently Lowering Enterprise Leverage Ratios (G.F. [2016] No. 54) were published and implemented. We encouraged business mergers and restructuring, promoted market-oriented and law-based debt-for-equity swaps, developed equity financing, and adopted other comprehensive measures so as to reduce business leverage ratios in an active yet prudent way. We launched an initiative for enterprises to engage in market-based debt-for-equity swaps with banks. By the end of 2016, a number of commercial banks had selected, via relevant agencies, 20 leading enterprises, which, despite having relatively high debt-to-asset ratios, had good prospects for development. Framework agreements on debt-for-equity swaps were drawn up with these enterprises on the basis of independent consultation, and are worth over 250 billion yuan. At the end of 2016, the debt-to-asset ratio of nationwide industrial enterprises with annual revenue from their main business operations of 20 million yuan or more was 55.8%, a year-on-year decrease of 0.4 percentage point.

四是降成本取得明显成效。《国务院关于印发降低实体经济企业成本工作方案的通知》(国发〔2016〕48号)印发实施。持续推进简政放权放管结合优化服务改革,降低制度性交易成本。全面推开营改增试点,阶段性降低“五险一金”缴费比例。实施煤电价格联动,推进输配电价改革,扩大电力直接交易规模,完善基本电价执行方式,降低企业用能成本。清理规范进出口环节、金融等领域涉企收费,推进铁路货运体制改革,开展物流业降本增效专项行动,印发实施推进物流大通道建设行动计划。2016年,规模以上工业企业每百元主营业务收入中的成本同比降低0.1元,利润率同比提高0.19个百分点。

4) Significant progress was achieved in reducing costs.

The State Council's Circular on Publishing the Work Plan on Reducing the Costs of Enterprises in the Real Economy (G.F. [2016] No. 48) was published and implemented. We continued to promote the reforms to streamline administration, delegate more powers, improve regulation, and provide better services, thereby reducing transaction costs imposed by government. We extended trials of replacing business tax with value added tax (VAT) to all sectors and appropriately lowered the ratio of enterprise contributions for old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, workers' compensation, maternity insurance, and housing provident fund schemes for the current stage. We implemented the mechanism for coupling the price of coal with that of electricity, promoted price reform of electricity transmission and distribution, increased the number of direct sales by electricity generation companies to users, and improved the implementation of the basic electricity pricing scheme, so as to lower enterprise energy costs. We reviewed and standardized fees and charges levied on enterprises related to imports and exports and financial services, pushed forward in reforming the freight transportation system for railways, launched a cost-reduction and performance-improvement campaign within the logistics industry, and published and implemented an action plan to develop logistics channels.

In 2016, industrial enterprises with annual revenue from their main business operations of 20 million yuan or more reduced their costs by 0.1 yuan per 100 yuan of income from their main business operations and increased their profit rate by 0.19 percentage point on a year-on-year basis.

图表3:降低实体经济企业成本 新华社发

Figure 3. Lowering Business Costs in the Real Economy
五是补短板力度加大。坚持既利当前又利长远,既重硬设施又重软能力,以市场化投融资方式带动银行贷款等资金投放,在脱贫攻坚、灾后水利恢复重建、社会事业、创新能力、新产业等关键领域和薄弱环节,抓好补短板建设。全年完成1000万以上农村贫困人口脱贫目标任务。

5) Efforts to strengthen points of weakness were intensified.

Keeping in mind the need to secure both short-term and long-term benefits and focusing on the development of both infrastructure and management and services, we pursued market-based investment and financing initiatives to stimulate bank loans and other forms of investment and worked to strengthen points of weakness in the key areas of poverty alleviation, post-disaster water conservancy restoration and reconstruction, social programs, innovation capacity-building, new industry, and other areas in need of attention. We achieved our target of helping more than 10 million rural residents lift themselves out of poverty over the course of the year.

(三)改革开放取得新突破,经济社会发展活力进一步释放。一批具有标志性、关键性的重大改革方案出台实施,重要领域和关键环节改革取得突破性进展,开放型经济发展水平不断提升。

3. We made new breakthroughs in reform and opening up, unleashing new impetus for economic and social development.

We launched a number of crucial signature reform plans, made breakthroughs in reform of major areas and key sectors, and improved the performance of China's open economy.

一是简政放权放管结合优化服务改革向纵深推进。在提前完成本届政府减少行政审批事项三分之一目标的基础上,去年又取消165项国务院部门及其指定地方实施的审批事项,清理规范192项审批中介服务事项、220项职业资格许可认定事项。第三次修订政府核准的投资项目目录。商事制度改革继续深化。全面推行“双随机、一公开”,增强事中事后监管的有效性,推进“互联网+政务服务”。市场准入负面清单制度改革试点开局良好。“放管服”四大平台建成运行。

1) Reforms to streamline administration, delegate more powers, improve regulation, and provide better services were intensified.

The goal of the current administration to cut the number of items requiring government review by a third had been achieved ahead of schedule. On that basis, last year we cancelled the requirement on a further 165 items for review by State Council departments and authorized local governments. We also overhauled and standardized 192 items of intermediary services for government review as well as 220 items of approvals and accreditations for professional qualifications. The Catalog of Investment Projects Requiring Government Review was revised for the third time. Reform of the business system was deepened. We fully implemented the oversight model consisting of inspections of randomly selected entities by randomly selected inspectors and the public release of inspection results, made operational and post-operational oversight more effective, and promoted the Internet Plus government services model. The newly-launched reform piloting a negative list for market access yielded positive results. The four major platforms for streamlining administration, delegating more powers, improving regulation, and providing better services have all been assembled and are in operation.

专栏3:“放管服”改革 新华社发

Box 3: Reforms to Streamline Administration, Delegate More Powers, Improve Regulation, and Provide Better Services

图表4:四个平台 新华社发

Figure 4. The Four Major Platforms
二是投融资体制改革步伐加快。深化投融资体制改革意见、企业投资项目核准和备案管理条例出台,新一轮投融资体制改革全面展开。修订发布中央预算内投资补助和贴息项目管理办法,制定80个专项管理办法。济青、杭绍台等铁路吸引社会资本示范项目取得积极进展。

2) Reform of the investment and financing systems picked up pace.

Guidelines on deepening reform of the investment and financing systems and regulations on the review and reporting of investment projects for enterprises were introduced, spurring a new round of reform throughout the investment and financing systems. We revised regulations on the management of projects for which the central government budget provides investment and loan-interest subsidies, and formulated 80 specific documents concerning the management of such projects. Significant progress was made in demonstration initiatives to attract private capital for projects such as the Ji'nan-Qingdao and Hangzhou-Shaoxing-Taizhou railway lines.

三是价格改革继续深化。输配电价改革试点实现所有省级电网全覆盖。建立天然气管道运输定价新机制,占消费总量80%以上的非居民用气门站价格主要由市场主导形成。石油天然气交易市场加快发展。90%左右的城市已推广居民阶梯水电气价。全面推进医疗服务价格改革。铁路、民航旅客票价市场化程度明显提高。农业水价综合改革稳步推进。完善稻谷和小麦最低收购价政策,棉花、大豆目标价格改革试点深入推进。

3) Price reform was deepened.

Trials to reform electricity transmission-and-distribution prices were extended to all provincial-level grids. We established a new pricing mechanism for the pipeline transportation of natural gas, and worked to ensure that the market decided citygate prices of natural gas for non-household users, who accounted for over 80% of natural-gas consumption. Markets for trading petroleum and natural gas experienced rapid development. Around 90% of cities have adopted tiered pricing for household water, electricity, and natural gas usage. Price reforms for medical services were implemented across the board and pricing for passenger rail and airline tickets became noticeably more market based. Comprehensive pricing reform on water for agricultural use registered solid progress. We improved the minimum state purchase price policy on rice and wheat and pressed on with pilot reforms for ensuring base prices for cotton and soybeans.

专栏4:重点领域价格改革 新华社发

Box 4: Price Reform in Key Areas
四是国有企业和重点行业改革稳步开展。国企改革“1+N”文件体系基本形成,加快剥离办社会职能和解决历史遗留问题工作方案等配套文件出台,深化国企改革九项重点任务、十项改革试点扎实推进。第一批混合所有制改革试点进入实施阶段。第一批国有资本投资公司试点取得阶段性进展。31个省(区、市)电改方案获批复,公布了首批105个增量配电业务改革试点项目。各省(区、市)国有林场改革实施方案和内蒙古、吉林、黑龙江重点国有林区改革实施方案均已制定完成,浙江、湖南、江西等6省国有林场改革试点顺利完成。盐业体制改革方案出台,全面放开食盐出厂、批发和零售价格。改革玉米收储制度,将东北地区玉米临时收储政策调整为市场化收购加补贴新机制。政策性粮食和储备棉库存消化进展顺利。

4) Steady progress was made in the reform of State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) and major industries.

In putting in place a framework that consists of the Guidelines on Deepening Reform of SOEs as well as supplementary documents, we promulgated work plans to more quickly relieve SOEs of their obligations to operate social programs and help them address other longstanding issues, and steadily pressed ahead with the nine major tasks for deepening SOE reform and the 10 pilot SOE reforms*. We implemented the pilot reform to introduce mixed ownership for an initial group of SOEs and made progress in the trials to establish the first group of state capital investment companies.

We approved reform plans for the electricity industries in 31 provinces,autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government, and released the first batch of 105 trial projects to increase the number of electricity distributors. Plans were formulated for reforming state forestry farms in all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government and for reforming key state forestry areas in Inner Mongolia, Jilin, and Heilongjiang. Trial reforms on state forestry farms were successfully concluded in Zhejiang, Hunan, Jiangxi, and three other provinces.

The plan for structural reform of the salt industry was issued, and all controls on producer, wholesale, and retail prices of salt were lifted. The system for purchasing and stockpiling corn was reformed, and the policy for temporary purchase and storage of corn in the northeast was replaced with a mechanism based on market-price purchases and supplementary subsidies. The work to reduce stockpiles of grain and cotton through the provision of policy support proceeded smoothly.

* They are to: ensure the power of the board of directors of SOEs; carry out competitive selection and employment of executives and managers; promote the professional management system; implement differentiated pay in SOEs; develop companies for state capital investment and operations; merge and reorganize central government enterprises; introduce mixed-ownership structures in some major sectors; allow employees of SOEs with mixed-ownership structures to hold shares in their employer company; make information on SOEs public; and relieve SOEs of their obligation to operate social programs and help them address any other longstanding issues.

专栏5:国有企业改革 新华社发

Box 5: Reform of SOEs
五是公平竞争市场环境加快形成。印发完善产权保护制度依法保护产权的意见,依法平等保护各种所有制经济权益。工业用地市场化配置改革试点稳步实施。在市场体系建设中建立公平竞争审查制度的意见出台,从源头上预防政府部门制定出台限制竞争的政策措施。社会信用体系建设取得新进展,出台政务、个人、电子商务领域诚信建设指导意见,50多个部门在12个领域开展失信联合惩戒、3个领域开展守信联合激励。打击侵权假冒合力增强,查办违法犯罪案件17万余件。国内贸易流通体制改革发展综合试点稳步推进。

5) Work to create a fair and competitive market was accelerated.

The guidelines on improving the property rights protection system and protecting property rights in accordance with the law were published so as to ensure the rights and interests of economic entities under all forms of ownership are subject to law-based protection on an equal footing. Steady progress was made in the pilot reform for market-based allocation of land designated for industrial purposes. Guidelines on establishing a review mechanism within the market system to ensure fair competition were issued so as to impose direct controls on government departments preventing them from adopting policies or measures that eliminate or stifle competition.

New headway was made in developing a credit rating system, and guidelines on enhancing the credit standing of governments and individuals, and within the e-commerce sector, were formulated. More than 50 departments worked together in 12 sectors to take punitive actions against those who act in bad faith and in three sectors to provide incentives to those who act in good faith. Coordinated efforts to combat infringements and counterfeiting were enhanced, with over 170,000 cases of illegal and criminal activities being investigated and handled. Steady progress was achieved in the comprehensive trials to reform and develop the domestic commodity distribution system.

六是财税金融改革有序推进。《国务院关于推进中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革的指导意见》(国发〔2016〕49号)出台实施。全面推开营改增试点,将建筑业、房地产业、金融业、生活服务业纳入营改增范围,并将所有企业新增不动产所含增值税纳入抵扣范围。全面实施资源税从价计征改革,开展水资源税改革试点。深化国有商业银行和开发性、政策性金融机构改革。存款保险制度平稳运行。上海自贸试验区部分金融开放创新举措推广至广东、天津、福建自贸试验区。“深港通”开启。

6) Fiscal, tax, and financial reforms proceeded in an orderly manner.

The State Council's Guidelines on Advancing Reform for the Sharing of Fiscal Authority and Spending Responsibilities between the Central and Local Governments (G.F. [2016] No. 49) were promulgated and implemented. We extended trials to replace business tax with VAT to all sectors, including the construction, real estate, financial, and consumer service industries, and ensured that VAT deductions cover all new immovable property of enterprises. Ad valorem rates were introduced for all resource taxes, and trial reforms to levy a water-resource tax were carried out. Reform of state-owned commercial banks as well as of development and policy-backed financial institutions were deepened. The deposit insurance system performed solidly. A number of measures for financial-sector opening up and innovation created by the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone were replicated in the pilot free trade zones in Guangdong, Tianjin, and Fujian. The Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect was launched.

七是社会领域改革加快推进。中央和国家机关公务用车制度改革全面完成,地方党政机关公车改革深入推进。行业协会商会与行政机关脱钩改革第二批试点启动实施。加快不动产统一登记制度落地,全国100%的地(市、州)、98%的县(市、区)实现“发新停旧”。国家科技计划管理改革继续深化,以增加知识价值为导向的分配政策出台,科技成果转化力度加大。教育领域综合改革向纵深推进。分级诊疗制度建设持续推进,城乡居民基本医疗保险制度整合取得实质性进展,个人卫生支出占卫生总费用的比重下降到28.9%。《国务院办公厅关于全面放开养老服务市场提升养老服务质量的若干意见》(国办发〔2016〕91号)印发实施。稳步推进机关事业单位养老保险制度改革。加快构建中国特色哲学社会科学,实施哲学社会科学创新工程。足球改革加快推进。

7) Social reforms were accelerated.

Reform of the system for the use of official vehicles was completed in all organs of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council and its implementation was deepened in local Party and government bodies. A second group of trials to delink industry associations and chambers of commerce from the government were launched. Implementation of a unified registration system for immovable property was accelerated, with 100% of prefectures, prefecture-level cities, and autonomous prefectures and 98% of counties, county-level cities, and districts across the country issuing new certificates to replace old ones. Management reform for state science and technology initiatives was deepened, profit distribution policies were developed with the goal of strengthening the value ascribed to knowledge, and efforts to apply scientific and technological advances were intensified. Comprehensive education reform was stepped up.

The system of tiered diagnosis and treatment was further developed, and substantive progress was made in integrating the basic medical insurance schemes for rural and non-working urban residents. The proportion of health care expenses borne by individuals dropped to 28.9%. Guidelines on Fully Opening up the Elderly Care Market and Improving Elderly Care Services (G.B.F. [2016] No. 91) by the State Council's General Office were published and implemented. We made steady progress in reforming the pension system for employees of Party and government offices and public institutions.

We moved faster to develop philosophy and the social sciences with Chinese characteristics, and launched an initiative to encourage innovation in philosophy and the social sciences. We worked to speed up implementation of soccer reforms.

专栏6:社会领域改革 新华社发

Box 6: Social Reforms
八是以“一带一路”建设为统领推动开放型经济水平不断提升。“一带一路”建设进展快速。“六廊六路多国多港”主骨架建设稳步推进,战略对接、规划对接成效显著,中欧班列实现了统一品牌,累计开行近3000列。一批国际产能合作标志性工程落地,亚的斯亚贝巴-吉布提铁路正式通车,从投融资、技术标准到运营管理维护,全部采用中国标准,标志着中国铁路首次实现全产业链“走出去”。印尼雅万高铁、中老铁路、中泰铁路、马来西亚南部铁路、匈塞铁路、瓜达尔港等重大项目有序推进。外商投资便利化程度进一步提高,非金融类实际使用外资保持稳定。对外投资管理体制机制更加完善,非金融类对外投资继续增长。国际贸易“单一窗口”在沿海口岸全部启用,通关一体化、检验检疫一体化管理覆盖全国。全年货物贸易进出口总额下降0.9%,降幅比上年收窄6.1个百分点。服务贸易较快增长。人民币正式加入国际货币基金组织特别提款权(SDR)货币篮子。特别是成功主办二十国集团领导人杭州峰会,影响深远。

8) The Belt and Road Initiative served as pacesetter to an open economy that saw continuous improvement.

The Belt and Road (the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road) Initiative saw rapid progress. Development of the Initiative's framework, which consists of six corridors and six channels serving multiple countries and ports*, made steady progress, enabling China and its partners to markedly increase cohesion between their development strategies and plans. China-Europe freight train services, which have registered a total of nearly 3,000 trips, were brought under a single unified brand.

A number of signature projects for international industrial-capacity cooperation got off the ground. The Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway officially came into service-from investment and financing to technology, operation, and management and maintenance, Chinese standards were applied throughout the project, making it the first full-production-chain export of China's railway. Steady progress was achieved in the construction of major international projects including railways connecting Jakarta and Bandung (high-speed railway), China and Laos, China and Thailand, and Hungary and Serbia; the railway project in southern Malaysia; and the Gwadar Port in Pakistan.

Further steps were taken to facilitate foreign investment, ensuring that utilized non-financial foreign investment remained stable. The regulation system and institutions for outbound investment were improved, which enabled further growth of outbound non-financial investment. All coastal ports installed and started using the Single Window System for foreign trade, and all ports throughout China successfully integrated customs clearance procedures and inspection and quarantine procedures.China experienced a 0.9% fall in total imports and exports for the year, which was 6.1 percentage points less than the previous year's decrease. Trade in services grew rapidly. The RMB was officially included in the International Monetary Fund's special drawing rights (SDR) basket. Of particular note was China's hosting of the G20 2016 Hangzhou Summit which produced important and far-reaching outcomes.

* The six corridors refer to economic corridors, comprising the New Eurasian Continental Bridge, the China-Mongolia-Russia corridor, the China-Central Asia-West Asia corridor, the China-Indochina Peninsula corridor, the China-Pakistan corridor, and the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar corridor. The six channels refer to communications and distribution channels comprising highways, railways, airlines, waterways, pipelines, and information networks.

专栏7:重点开发开放功能平台建设 新华社发

Box 7: Major Platforms for Development and Opening up
(四)深入实施创新驱动发展战略,经济发展新动能加快成长。《国家创新驱动发展战略纲要》印发实施,取得一批重大科技成果,高技术产业、装备制造业、战略性新兴产业较快增长,创新对发展的支撑作用增强。

4. We deepened implementation of the innovation-driven development strategy, spurring the growth of new drivers for economic development.

The National Strategy for Innovation-Driven Development was published and implemented. With a number of major scientific and technological advances as well as rapid growth in high-tech industries, equipment manufacturing, and strategic emerging industries, innovation has played an increasingly important role in bolstering development.

一是创新能力持续提升。由点及面、有序布局重大科技创新平台建设,深入推进8个区域全面创新改革试验。北京、上海建设科技创新中心迈出新步伐。河北·京南、浙江、宁波3个国家科技成果转移转化示范区启动建设。首个国家高速列车技术创新中心建成。完全自主知识产权中国标准高速列车正式投入运营。建成世界最大单口径射电望远镜(FAST)等一批重大科技基础设施,在量子通信、航空航天等方面取得一批重大科技成果。国家科技重大专项深入实施,科技创新2030-重大项目遴选确定。大力推动企业技术创新,落实好研发费用加计扣除、股权激励和技术入股所得税优惠、完善高新技术企业认定办法等政策。

1) Innovation capacity continued to improve.

We ensured the progressive and orderly development of major science and technology innovation platforms, and deepened pilot reforms on all-around innovation in eight regions. New strides were made in setting up science and technology innovation centers in Beijing and Shanghai. Work began to establish three national demonstration zones for the transfer and commercialization of scientific and technological achievements in Hebei-southern Beijing, Zhejiang, and Ningbo. The first national technology innovation center for high-speed trains was established, and the first Chinese-standard high-speed trains for which we hold complete intellectual property rights went into service. A number of major science and technology infrastructure projects were completed such as the project to build the world's largest single-aperture radio telescope, the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST). A number of significant scientific and technological advances were achieved in sectors including quantum communications, space, and aviation.

We pressed ahead with implementing major national science and technology programs, and identified major projects for the Sci-Tech Innovation 2030 Agenda. A big push was made to encourage technological innovation among enterprises, with policies being implemented in relation to extra tax deductions for R&D costs, equity-based incentives for undertaking innovation, income tax incentives for personnel who contribute their technological achievements to become company shareholders, and improvements in the methods for defining new- and high-tech enterprises.

专栏8:创新平台建设 新华社发
Box 8: Major Science and Technology Innovation Platforms
二是大众创业万众创新广泛开展。28个国家双创示范基地建设全面推进。双创政策信息服务平台开通,双创白皮书发布。国家新兴产业创业投资引导基金、科技成果转化引导基金子基金和国家中小企业发展基金实体基金设立运行,投贷联动试点启动,创业担保贷款创新发展。第二届全国双创活动周及“创响中国”巡回接力活动成功举办。大型央企建设双创实体平台128个,印发实施进一步完善中央财政科研项目资金管理等政策的若干意见,科研院所和高校鼓励创新创业机制逐步完善,各类孵化器、专业化众创空间日趋成熟。全年平均每天新登记企业1.51万户。

2) Entrepreneurship and innovation initiatives were carried out across the board.

Work on establishing 28 national entrepreneurship and innovation demonstration centers moved forward on all fronts. Information service platforms for entrepreneurship and innovation policies began operating, and a whitepaper on entrepreneurship and innovation was published. The national seed fund for investing in emerging industries, the sub-funds of the seed fund for encouraging the application of scientific and technological advances, and the National SME Development Fund all came into operation. Trials got underway to allow banks to make combined debt-equity investments in startups and small businesses, and creative improvements were made to the system of guaranteed loans for business startups. The second National Week for Entrepreneurship and Innovation and the Innovating China Tour were a tremendous success. 128 platforms for entrepreneurship and innovation were developed by large-scale central government enterprises, guidelines on further improving the policies for managing the funding of central government-funded research programs were published and implemented, and mechanisms for encouraging entrepreneurship and innovation were gradually improved in research institutes and universities. All types of incubators and professional maker spaces saw continuous development. On average, 15,100 new enterprises were registered each day in 2016.

三是新技术新产业新业态新模式蓬勃发展。工业机器人、集成电路、卫星应用、通用航空、生物等新产业快速发展。战略性新兴产业实现平稳增长,2016年,27个重点监测战略性新兴产业行业规模以上企业实现收入和利润分别增长11.32%和13.96%。“互联网+”行动和国家大数据战略深入推进,人工智能、虚拟现实、基因工程等新技术加速兴起,平台经济、分享经济、协同经济等新模式广泛渗透,线上线下融合、跨境电商、社交电商、智慧家庭、智能交通等新业态不断涌现。全年网上零售交易额近5.2万亿元,同比增长26.2%;其中,实物商品网上零售额占社会消费品零售总额的12.6%。

3) New technologies and industries as well as new forms and models of business flourished.

There was rapid development in industrial robotics, integrated circuits, satellite applications, general aviation, bio-industry, and other new industries, while growth in strategic emerging industries was stable. In 2016, enterprises with annual turnover of 20 million yuan or more in 27 key strategic emerging industries increased their revenues by 11.32% and profits by 13.96%. We pressed ahead with implementing the Internet Plus initiative and the national big data strategy. Artificial intelligence, virtual reality, genetic engineering, and other new technologies experienced more rapid development. The platform, sharing, and collaborative economies, along with other new business models, achieved far-reaching penetration. New forms of business mushroomed, including combined online-offline businesses, cross-border and social networking e-commerce, smart home technology, and intelligent transportation. Online retail sales for 2016 reached nearly 5.2 trillion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 26.2%, with online retail sales of goods accounting for 12.6% of total retail sales of consumer goods.

四是传统产业转型升级步伐加快。加快落实《中国制造2025》,组织实施增强制造业核心竞争力三年行动计划和制造业升级改造重大工程包,8个产业化实施方案顺利推进。铁路关键装备研发试验取得重大突破,226个智能制造综合标准化试验验证和新模式应用项目有序开展,国家机器人检测与评定中心建设进展顺利。先进制造产业投资基金设立。

4) Transformation and upgrading of traditional industries accelerated.

We moved faster to put the Made in China 2025 strategy into place, and organized implementation of the three-year action plan to enhance core competitiveness of our manufacturing industries and the project packages for transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing sector. The eight plans for industrial application were implemented smoothly. Major breakthroughs were made in research and development on key railway equipment. A total of 226 programs to run comprehensive, standardized tests on smart manufacturing technologies and apply new manufacturing models proceeded as planned. We made progress in building the National Robot Test and Evaluation Center. An investment fund for advanced manufacturing was set up.

五是服务业创新发展稳步推进。落实加快发展生产性服务业、生活性服务业的两个指导意见,服务业领域放宽市场准入实施规划出台,新一轮服务业综合改革试点启动。安排服务业发展引导资金,支持163个公共服务平台建设。第三产业增速继续超过第二产业,增加值占国内生产总值的比重提高到51.6%。

5) Solid steps were made in innovating and developing the service industry.

We implemented the guidelines on accelerating the development of producer and consumer services and published the implementation plan for relaxing controls over market access in the service sector. A new round of comprehensive pilot reforms in the service sector began. We allocated funds for guiding the development of the service industry and supported the establishment of 163 public-service platforms. The tertiary industry has continued to outgrow the secondary industry, and the value-added of the tertiary industry accounted for a higher proportion of GDP, reaching 51.6%.

六是基础设施网络进一步完善。加快推进现代综合交通运输体系建设,交通基础设施网络总里程突破500万公里。交通提质增效、扶贫脱贫、重大基础设施建设“一二三百”工程出台实施,推进多式联运发展,促进通用航空业发展,推动交通物流融合发展。能源生产和消费革命战略出台,能源供应能力不断增强,非化石能源消费比重预计上升到13.3%,煤炭消费比重下降到62.0%。全国地级市基本建成光网城市,新一代信息基础设施更加完善,建成全球最大的4G网络。

6) Further improvements were made to infrastructure networks.

As a result of accelerated development of the modern comprehensive transportation system, the length of transportation infrastructure networks open to traffic exceeded five million kilometers. We unveiled and implemented the 100 Demonstration Projects to Improve Transportation Quality and Efficiency, 200 Transportation Projects to Help Reduce Poverty, and 300 Major Transportation Infrastructure Projects. We worked to stimulate development of multimodal transportation and the general aviation industry and integrated the development of transportation and logistics infrastructure.

The strategy on revolutionizing energy generation and consumption was launched, and energy supply capacity continued to grow stronger. The proportion of non-fossil energy consumption rose to an estimated 13.3% of total energy consumption while the proportion of coal consumption dropped to 62.0%. Fiber-optic networks were established in almost all prefecture-level cities, next-generation information infrastructure saw yet further enhancements, and China's 4G network, which is the world's largest, was completed.

专栏9:重大基础设施建设 新华社发

Box 9: Major Infrastructure Construction
(五)着力提升农业可持续发展能力,农业现代化建设取得新进展。农业农村发展继续保持稳中有进的良好态势,粮食总产量达到6.16亿吨,为经济社会发展大局提供了有力支撑。

5. We worked to increase the capacity for sustainable agricultural development and achieved new progress in agricultural modernization.

The trend of ensuring progress while maintaining stability continued in agricultural and rural development and grain output reached 616 million metric tons, thus ensuring agriculture served as a strong pillar of economic and social development.

一是农业生产能力继续提高。落实《全国新增1000亿斤粮食生产能力规划》,高标准农田建设加快推进,全面完成永久基本农田划定,国家粮食安全和重要农产品供给保障能力进一步增强。新建粮食仓容195亿斤。农业生产稳中调优,籽粒玉米种植面积调减2039万亩,粮改饲、粮改豆试点范围扩大,畜产品和水产品综合生产能力继续增强。农业绿色发展稳健起步,农业环境突出问题治理专项启动实施,农业可持续发展试验示范区启动创建,“一控两减三基本”行动取得阶段性成效,对农业面源污染、东北黑土地、农牧交错带已垦草原综合治理试点的支持力度加大。

1) Agricultural production capacity continued to increase.

We implemented the plan to increase China's grain production capacity by 50 million metric tons, moved faster to develop high-quality farmland, and completed in full the work of designating permanent basic cropland throughout the country. As a result, our ability to guarantee national food security and the supply of major agricultural products has been further increased. New grain silos with a total capacity of 9.75 million metric tons were built. In working to optimize agricultural production while maintaining its stability, we reduced the area of land for corn kernel cultivation by 1.36 million hectares, expanded trials to cultivate feed crop or soybean crop instead of grain crop, and continued to raise overall production capacity for livestock and aquatic products.

We made steady progress in promoting green agricultural development, launching a campaign to control and prevent serious agricultural environmental pollution, establishing pilot demonstration zones for sustainable agricultural development, and securing important achievements in implementing the action plan against pollution in rural areas*. We intensified support for trials to comprehensively manage agricultural pollution from non-point sources, chernozem soils in the northeast, and former grassland now under cultivation in transition areas between cropland and grassland.

* The action plan aims to: 1) control water consumption for agricultural purposes; 2) cut the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers; 3) use recycling as a means of handling the pollution caused by the waste of livestock and poultry farming, plastic mulch film, and straw burning.

二是农业农村基础设施不断完善。中小河流治理、小型病险水库除险加固、灌排骨干工程建设与配套改造和小型农田水利建设等进展顺利,新增高效节水灌溉面积2000万亩以上,农村饮水安全巩固提升工程启动实施。新一轮农村电网改造升级工程,包括小城镇中心村农网改造升级和平原地区农村机井通电等重点工程全面实施。农村交通基础设施服务水平不断提升,新改建农村公路29万公里。“宽带乡村”工程继续实施,电信普遍服务试点全面部署,农村信息基础设施进一步改善。

2) Agricultural and rural infrastructure continued to improve.

We successfully implemented projects to harness small and medium-sized rivers, reinforce small, dilapidated reservoirs, build key irrigation and drainage facilities as well as upgrade supporting infrastructure, and develop small-scale irrigation and water conservancy facilities. The area of cropland under efficient water-saving irrigation exceeded 1.33 million hectares. We also launched the project to consolidate and advance efforts to ensure safe drinking water in rural areas.

A new round of power-grid improvement projects began throughout the country, including key projects for upgrading power grids in rural areas, small towns, and hub villages, and for providing power supply to all electric pump sets on rural flatlands. Transportation infrastructure and services in rural areas were continuously improved, and 290,000 kilometers of rural road were newly built or upgraded. We continued to implement broadband development projects in villages, carried out nationwide trials of providing universal telecommunications services in rural areas, and further improved rural information infrastructure.

三是农村一二三产业融合发展进展顺利。农村产业融合发展“百县千乡万村”试点示范工程启动,137个试点示范县在优化发展布局、推进产城融合发展、构建现代农业产业体系、创新投融资机制等方面进行了积极探索。农村产业融合发展孵化园区加快建设,多元融合主体发展较快,打造了一批农业产业化龙头企业,农村新产业新业态蓬勃发展。

3) Integrated development of the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in rural areas advanced smoothly.

The "100 counties, 1,000 townships, 10,000 villages" pilot demonstration project to promote rural industrial integration was implemented, with all 137 demonstration counties undertaking active explorations on how to improve development plans, promote integration between industrial development and urbanization initiatives, establish an industry system for modern agriculture, and innovate investment and financing mechanisms in the agricultural sector. We accelerated efforts to establish incubation parks for integrated development of industries in rural areas, develop diverse entities that integrate primary, secondary, and tertiary industry operations, and cultivate a group of leading enterprises in agricultural industrialization. New industries and new forms of business in rural areas experienced robust growth.

四是农村改革稳步推进。农村土地所有权、承包权、经营权分置办法出台实施,土地承包经营权确权登记颁证面积超过8亿亩。房地一体的农村宅基地、集体建设用地确权登记加快推进。农村集体产权制度改革意见出台,农村集体资产股份权能改革试点和土地承包权有偿退出试点积极开展。农村承包土地经营权和农民住房财产权抵押贷款试点稳妥有序推进。土地经营权流转和抵押规模不断扩大。各类新型经营主体发展壮大,数量超过270万家。

4) Solid results were achieved in rural reform.

We issued and implemented the Measures for Separating Land Ownership Rights, Contract Rights, and Management Rights in Rural Areas, and determined, registered, and certified contracted rural land-use rights for more than 53.3 million hectares of land. The determination and registration of integrated housing ownership and land-use rights for rural housing land and rights for collectively owned land designated for construction was accelerated. We drew up the Guidelines on Reforming the Rural Collective Property Rights System, and moved ahead with pilot reforms to grant shareholder rights for rural collective assets as well as trials to permit the sale of land contract rights. We carried out trials in a prudent and orderly fashion to allow rural residents to mortgage their contracted land-use rights and residential property rights. The cases of transferring or mortgaging rural land use rights have continually increased. New types of agribusinesses thrived and their number rose to more than 2.7 million.

(六)深入实施三大战略和新型城镇化,城乡区域发展格局正在重塑优化。发挥三大战略、“四大板块”的叠加效应,促进城乡区域协调协同发展,提升新型城镇化质量和水平,新增长点增长极增长带加快发展壮大。

6. We further implemented the Three Initiatives and New Urbanization, which has helped reshape and enhance the pattern of urban and rural development.

We fostered synergy between the Three Initiatives (the Belt and Road Initiative, coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and development of the Yangtze Economic Belt) and the coordinated development of the western, northeastern, central, and eastern regions. We promoted coordinated and integrated regional development and urban-rural development, and increased the quality and standards of New Urbanization. New growth areas, poles, and belts experienced stronger, faster development.

一是三大战略扎实有序推进。各省(区、市)主动融入丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路建设,新疆、福建“一带一路”核心区建设成效初显。京津冀协同发展有序推进,北京城市副中心加快规划建设,一批疏解示范项目稳步实施,交通、生态、产业三个重点领域协同推进,一批重大改革举措落地。长江经济带发展规划纲要印发实施,坚持共抓大保护、不搞大开发,绿色生态廊道建设加快推进,覆盖上中下游地区的省际协商合作机制全面建立。

1) The Three Initiatives advanced in a solid and orderly manner.

All provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government actively took part in the Belt and Road Initiative, and initial results were delivered in developing Xinjiang as the core of the Silk Road Economic Belt and Fujian as the core of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road.

In systematically promoting the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, we sped up planning and development of Beijing's sub-administrative center, implemented a number of demonstration projects to relieve Beijing of functions nonessential to its role as China's capital, facilitated coordination in three major areas-transportation, ecological conservation, and industrial development-and enacted a range of major reform measures. We published and implemented the Outline on Developing the Yangtze Economic Belt, continued coordinated efforts to champion environmental protection and eschew large-scale development, accelerated work on building a green, ecological corridor, and fully established a mechanism for inter-provincial consultation and cooperation covering the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the River.

图表5:“一带一路”建设 新华社发

Figure 5. The Belt and Road Initiative

图表6:京津冀协同发展 新华社发

Figure 6. Coordinated Development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

图表7:长江经济带发展 新华社发

Figure 7. The Yangtze Economic Belt
二是区域发展总体战略和差别化区域政策深入实施。加快新一轮西部大开发,一批重大标志性工程开工建设,中西部地区经济继续保持较快增长。出台实施新一轮东北振兴战略和若干重大政策举措,国企改革、投资营商环境改善等重点领域改革取得新进展。明确中部地区“一中心、四区”重要战略定位,长江中游城市群重要增长极作用强化。东部地区转型升级、开放创新、陆海统筹优势持续发挥,区域发展新动能新亮点不断涌现。出台促进区域协调发展的指导意见,差别化区域政策体系持续完善。国家综合配套改革试验区、国家级新区及各类开发区、承接产业转移示范区、产城融合示范区、临空经济示范区等重要功能平台建设有序推进。加快革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区和集中连片特困地区脱贫攻坚。完善支持政策措施,推进新疆、西藏、四省藏区经济社会发展和长治久安。

2) Implementation of the master strategy for regional development and differentiated development policies for different regions deepened.

We increased efforts to accelerate large-scale development in the western region, with construction beginning on a number of signature projects. A relatively high-pace of economic development was maintained in the central and western regions. A new round of strategies and a number of major policies and measures for revitalizing the northeast were implemented, and reform in key areas, such as SOEs and the investment and business environment, made fresh progress. We underscored the strategic position of the central region, designating it as the country's key advanced manufacturing center, and as the priority area for New Urbanization, the core area for modern agricultural development, the demonstration area for promoting ecological progress, and the key area for comprehensive opening up. The city clusters along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River played a greater role as major growth poles. The eastern region continued to leverage its advantages in transforming and upgrading industries, in pursuing opening up and innovation, and in coordinating land and marine development to generate a constant stream of new drivers for growth and produce new highlights in development.

We introduced guidelines on promoting coordinated development between regions, and continued to improve the system of differentiated regional policies. We ensured the orderly development of major function platforms-such platforms include national experimental zones for integrated, complete reform, state-level new areas and all types of development zones, demonstration zones for industrial relocation, demonstration zones for integrating industrial and urban development, and demonstration airport economic zones. We intensified efforts to combat poverty in old revolutionary base areas, areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities, border areas, and contiguous poor areas. We improved polices and measures for promoting economic and social development and continuing stability in Xinjiang, Tibet, and the Tibetan ethnic areas in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, and Qinghai provinces.

专栏10:“四大板块” 新华社发

Box 10: Development of the Four Regions
三是新型城镇化建设稳步推进。农业转移人口市民化步伐加快,户籍制度改革意见、居住证制度以及人地挂钩、支持农业转移人口市民化财政政策等关键性配套政策出台,全年进城落户人口达1600万人,常住人口城镇化率达到57.35%,户籍人口城镇化率达到41.2%。城市群规划建设有序推进,支持武汉、郑州建设国家中心城市。在全国开展新生中小城市和特色小(城)镇培育,国家新型城镇化综合试点范围扩大到2个省246个城市(镇)。61个中小城市综合改革试点取得积极成效。

3) We steadily advanced the development of New Urbanization.

We granted urban residency to more people with rural household registration living in urban areas, and issued a number of key policies in support of this work, such as the guidelines on reform of the household registration system, the policy for implementing the residence certificate system,and the policy for linking increases in the amount of land designated for urban development in a locality to the number of former rural residents granted urban residency there. A total of 16 million people with rural household registration were granted urban residency in 2016. In total, permanent urban residents now account for 57.35% of the population, while the percentage of registered urban residents has reached 41.2%. We planned and developed city clusters in an orderly way, and supported Wuhan and Zhengzhou in developing as national principal cities. We facilitated the development of emerging small- and medium-sized cities as well as small towns with unique features across the country, and extended comprehensive trials of New Urbanization programs to two provinces and 246 cities and towns. Trials for comprehensive reform of small- and medium-sized cities yielded positive results in 61 cities.

专栏11:新型城镇化建设 新华社发

Box 11: New Urbanization
(七)加强生态环境保护和能源资源节约,绿色发展初见成效。单位国内生产总值能耗和二氧化碳排放量分别下降5%和6.6%,超额完成全年目标,化学需氧量、氨氮、二氧化硫、氮氧化物排放量预计分别下降2.6%、2.9%、5.6%、4.0%,地级及以上城市空气质量优良天数比例同比提高2.1个百分点,74个重点城市细颗粒物(PM2.5)年均浓度下降9.1%,地表水达到或好于Ⅲ类水体比例同比提高1.8个百分点、劣Ⅴ类水体比例同比下降1.1个百分点,万元国内生产总值用水量下降5.6%。

7. We intensified environmental protection and energy and resource conservation, securing early achievements in promoting green development.

Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP fell by 5% and 6.6% respectively, both surpassing annual targets. According to estimated figures, chemical oxygen demand was reduced by 2.6%, ammonia nitrogen emissions by 2.9%, sulfur dioxide emissions by 5.6%, and nitrogen oxide emissions by 4.0%. A year-on-year increase of 2.1 percentage points occurred in the proportion of days with good or excellent air quality for cities at or above prefectural level, while the annual average PM2.5 concentrations in 74 key cities dropped by 9.1%. The proportion of surface water with a national quality rating of Grade III or above rose by 1.8 percentage points year on year, and the proportion of surface water with a rating lower than Grade V, meanwhile, fell by 1.1 percentage points. Water consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP fell by 5.6%.

图表8:生态文明建设和绿色发展 新华社发

Figure 8. Ecological Progress and Green Development
一是生态文明建设取得新进展。生态文明建设目标评价考核办法印发实施。决定在福建省、江西省和贵州省开展国家生态文明试验区建设,生态文明先行示范区建设持续深化。健全国家自然资源资产管理体制试点方案、省以下环保机构监测监察执法垂直管理制度改革试点指导意见、控制污染物排放许可制实施方案、划定并严守生态保护红线若干意见、培育环境治理和生态保护市场主体意见等一批改革方案印发实施。在吉林等7省(市)开展生态环境损害赔偿制度改革试点。全面推行河长制意见出台。生态保护补偿机制不断健全。新一轮退耕还林还草、重点防护林、石漠化综合治理、京津风沙源治理、水土流失综合治理等工程加快推进,湿地保护体系初步形成。开展中央环境保护督察。

1) Work to promote ecological progress moved ahead.

We promulgated and implemented the measures on evaluating performance in advancing ecological progress. We decided to build pilot zones for ecological advancement in Fujian, Jiangxi, and Guizhou provinces, and stepped up the development of pilot demonstration zones for promoting ecological progress. We issued and implemented a number of reform plans on ecological progress, including: the pilot plan on improving the national system for natural-resource asset management; the guidelines for trial reforms to establish a system to bring county- and prefecture-level environmental monitoring, inspection, and law enforcement bodies directly under the jurisdiction of provincial-level environmental bodies; the plan for implementing the emissions permit system to tighten emissions control; and the guidelines on establishing and holding firm to the red lines for ecological conservation and on fostering market entities for environmental governance and ecological conservation. Pilot reforms of the compensation system for ecological and environmental damage were carried out in seven provinces and municipalities directly under the central government including Jilin.

The guidelines on bringing the river chief system into full operation were issued, and mechanisms for compensating ecological conservation efforts were improved. We moved faster to implement a new round of projects to return marginal farmland to forest and grassland, build key forest shelterbelts, comprehensively address the expansion of stony deserts, control the sources of dust storms affecting Beijing and Tianjin, and bring soil erosion under control. A basic framework for wetland conservation was put in place. The central government carried out environmental inspections.

二是主体功能区战略深入实施。国家重点生态功能区范围拓展到676个县及87个重点国有林区林业局,产业准入负面清单制度出台实施。省级海洋主体功能区规划编制实施工作在11个沿海省份展开。三江源、东北虎豹、大熊猫、神农架、武夷山、钱江源等国家公园体制试点方案印发实施。资源环境承载能力监测预警机制初步建立,先行在京津冀地区试点。市县“多规合一”试点深入推进,省级空间规划试点方案印发实施。全国国土规划纲要、全国土地利用总体规划纲要调整方案印发实施。

2) The development strategy for functional zones was further implemented.

Key ecosystem service zones have been established in 676 counties and 87 forestry bureaus in key state forestry areas. A negative list for industry access to key ecosystem service zones was issued and put into force. Work got under way in 11 coastal provinces to draw up and implement plans for marine functional zones. The plan for establishing a national park system on a trial basis was implemented, with trials going ahead in national parks at the Yangtze, Yellow, and Lancang riversources, in the habitats of Siberian tigers, Far Eastern leopards, and giant pandas, in the Shennongjia area, in the Wuyi Mountains, and at the source of the Qiantang River. The mechanisms for monitoring and providing early warning on the carrying capacity of resources and the environment were basically established, with initial trials being implemented in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The pilot project for municipal or county-level governments to integrate various types of urban plans into a single urban plan moved forward, and the plan to carry out spatial-planning trials at the provincial level was implemented. The National Land Plan (2016-2030) and the Adjustments to the General Plan for National Land Use (2006-2020) were introduced.

三是节能减排持续推进。“十二五”省级人民政府节能目标责任评价考核结果公布,“十三五”能耗、水耗总量和强度“双控”制度建立实施,在浙江、福建、河南、四川4省开展用能权有偿使用和交易制度试点。循环经济发展加快,生产者责任延伸制度方案印发实施,产业园区循环化改造继续推进。印发《“十三五”节能环保产业发展规划》,构建绿色金融体系指导意见出台实施,发行各类绿色债券2296.6亿元,节能环保产业不断做大做强。

3) Sustained progress was made in energy conservation and emissions reduction.

The results of performance evaluations of provincial-level governments in fulfilling responsibilities for energy conservation targets during the 12th Five-Year Plan period were released to the public. The system to control both the total amount and intensity of energy and water consumption during the 13th Five-Year Plan period was established. Pilot projects to set up systems for the paid use and trade of energy consumption rights were carried out in Zhejiang, Fujian, Henan, and Sichuan provinces. We stepped up development of the circular economy, issuing the plan to create a system for extended producer responsibility and making strides in promoting circular operations within industrial parks. The plan for developing energy conservation and environmental protection industries during the 13th Five-Year Plan period was issued. The guidelines on establishing a green finance system were introduced and applied, bonds worth 229.66 billion yuan for launching eco-friendly initiatives were issued, and the energy conservation and environmental protection industries achieved robust growth in terms of both scale and strength.

四是环境综合治理力度加大。《京津冀地区大气污染防治强化措施(2016-2017年)》发布实施,重点地区煤炭消费量进一步压减,加快燃煤电厂超低排放改造,全国累计淘汰黄标车和老旧车404.6万辆。制定实施2016-2017年长江经济带生态环境保护行动计划,完成11省(市)126个地级及以上城市全部319个集中式饮用水水源保护区划定,出台《全国重要饮用水水源地名录》,排查整治城市黑臭水体和非正规垃圾堆放点。深入开展农村生活垃圾治理专项行动,推进农村人居环境综合整治。土壤污染防治行动计划发布实施,出台污染地块土壤环境管理办法,启动14个土壤污染治理与修复试点项目和6个土壤污染综合防治先行区建设,加强重金属污染防控重点区域综合治理。全国矿山地质环境恢复和综合治理进一步加强。环境风险管控水平进一步提高,突发环境事件得到妥善处置。

4) More was done to comprehensively address environmental problems.

Stronger measures on the prevention and control of air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (2016-2017) were promulgated and implemented, and coal consumption in key areas was further cut. Coal-fired power plants were urged to swiftly upgrade their facilities and achieve ultra-low emissions. A total of 4.046 million old and high-emission vehicles were removed from roads nationwide. The action plan on environmental protection of the Yangtze Economic Belt (2016-2017) was implemented. Planning was completed on the establishment of protection zones for 319 centralized drinking water sources in 126 cities at or above prefectural level in 11 provinces and provincial-level municipalities. The national list of major drinking watersources was formulated.

We identified and cleaned up both black, malodorous water bodies and undesignated refuse dumping points in urban areas. A project to manage household refuse in rural areas got fully under way, and comprehensive measures were taken to improve the rural living environments. We issued the action plan to prevent and control soil pollution and the measures for soil environmental governance on polluted land plots, launched 14 related pilot projects aimed at prevention, control, and restoration, and also established six trial zones for comprehensively preventing and curbing soil pollution. Greater efforts were taken to comprehensively improve land in key areas contaminated by heavy metals. We continued to improve and restore the geological environment in mining areas throughout the country. We made headway in managing and controlling environmental risks and in responding effectively to environmental emergencies.

五是应对气候变化工作不断强化。“十三五”控制温室气体排放工作方案印发实施。低碳省市、城(镇)、园区、社区等试点示范有序开展。碳排放权交易市场建设积极推进。城市适应气候变化行动方案发布实施。气候变化南南合作加快推进,“十百千”项目启动实施。首批签署和较早批准《巴黎协定》,创新性推动实现中美元首出席批准文书交存仪式,为推动《巴黎协定》尽早生效作出历史性贡献。建设性参加联合国气候变化马拉喀什会议并推动会议取得成功。

5) Our efforts to respond to climate change grew stronger.

A work plan to control greenhouse gas emissions during the 13th Five-Year Plan period was introduced. Trials and demonstrations to encourage low-carbon growth in provinces, municipalities, cities, towns, industrial parks, and communities proceeded in an orderly manner. Encouraging progress was made in establishing a national market for the trading of carbon emission rights. The Action Plan on Developing Climate Resilient Cities was promulgated.

We quickened the pace of South-South cooperation on climate change and launched cooperation projects in developing countries to set up 10 low-carbon demonstration zones, launch 100 mitigation and adaption programs, and provide 1,000 places on climate-change training programs. China was one of the first countries to sign the Paris Climate Agreement and also ratified it at a relatively early stage. The presidents of China and the United States deposited with United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon their respective country's instrument to join the Paris Agreement-the proposal to hold the ceremony, which was the first of its kind, was put forward by China, making a significant contribution toward the early entry into force of the Paris Agreement. China attended the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Marrakech, Morocco, where it played a constructive role and contributed to the overall success of the conference.

(八)加快发展社会事业和改善民生,人民生活水平持续提升。全力推进精准扶贫精准脱贫,加强社会政策托底,努力提高基本公共服务均等化水平。

8. We moved faster to develop social programs and improve people's wellbeing, ensuring that living standards continued to rise.

We directed major efforts toward implementing targeted measures for poverty alleviation and elimination, made social policies more effective in meeting basic living needs, and ensured more equitable access to basic public services.

专栏12:精准扶贫精准脱贫工程 新华社发

Box 12: Targeted Poverty Reduction Projects
一是脱贫攻坚战全面打响。《“十三五”脱贫攻坚规划》发布实施,全国财政专项扶贫资金投入超过1000亿元。印发实施“十三五”易地扶贫搬迁规划,22个省(区、市)全面启动易地扶贫搬迁项目,全年249万人易地扶贫搬迁建设任务如期完成。金融扶贫、特色产业扶贫、教育扶贫、交通扶贫、水利扶贫、旅游扶贫、光伏扶贫、电商扶贫、以工代赈等深入推进。东西部扶贫协作不断深化。推动集中连片特困地区“十三五”省级实施规划落地,对川陕等革命老区、赣南等原中央苏区振兴发展与脱贫攻坚支持力度持续加大。支持四川凉山、云南怒江、甘肃临夏等面临特殊困难的少数民族自治州加快建设小康社会进程。

1) The fight against poverty began in full swing.

The plan for poverty elimination during the 13th Five-Year Plan period was released and implemented, and over 100 billion yuan was allocated to government poverty-alleviation funds nationwide. The plan for relocating people from inhospitable areas during the 13th Five-Year Plan period was published and implemented. In line with this, related projects were launched in 22 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government, and last year's objective to provide housing for the 2.49 million people relocated from inhospitable areas was completed on time. We made great progress in reducing poverty by providing financial support and by promoting the development of locally viable industries, education, transportation, water conservancy projects, tourism, photovoltaic power facilities, e-commerce, and work-relief programs in poor areas. Coordination on poverty reduction between the western and eastern regions continued to grow. We worked to ensure the implementation of the provincial plan for promoting development and fighting poverty in contiguous poor areas during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. Greater support was given to promote revitalization and development and to reduce poverty in old revolutionary base areas such as the Sichuan-Shaanxi region and the former Central Soviet Area in southern Jiangxi. We supported extremely poor autonomous prefectures with concentrations of ethnic minorities, such as Liangshan in Sichuan, Nujiang in Yunnan, and Linxia in Gansu, to ensure they can work more quickly in building a moderately prosperous society.

二是社会保障能力不断加强。全国居民人均可支配收入实际增长6.3%,农村居民收入增幅连续7年高于城镇居民。退休人员基本养老金水平提高6.5%左右。基本医疗保险参保人数超过13亿,城乡居民基本医保补助标准由每人每年380元提高到420元。在全国范围内建立了困难残疾人生活补贴和重度残疾人护理补贴制度。

2) The capacity to provide social security was constantly enhanced.

Per capita disposable personal income increased by 6.3% in real terms, and the growth rate of rural income was greater than that of urban income for the seventh year in a row. Basic pension benefits for retirees were raised by approximately 6.5%. The number of people under the basic medical insurance system exceeded 1.3 billion, and the government subsidy for basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents increased from 380 yuan to 420 yuan per capita per annum. The system for granting living allowances to people with disabilities who face financial difficulties and providing a care subsidy to people with serious disabilities was put in place across the country.

三是公共服务供给持续改善。学前教育毛入园率、九年义务教育巩固率、高中阶段毛入学率分别达到77.4%、93.4%和87.5%。高等教育毛入学率达到42.7%,超过中高收入国家平均水平。现代职业教育体系进一步完善和发展。城乡基本医疗服务体系进一步健全,基本公共卫生服务项目年人均财政补助达到45元,均等化水平明显提高。“健康中国2030”规划纲要发布实施,每千人口执业(助理)医师数增长到2.31人,每万人全科医生数增长到1.53人。全年出生人口达到1786万人,全面两孩政策平稳落地,生育服务保障进一步加强。公共文化服务体系建设继续加强,各省(区、市)均已出台本地区的基本公共文化服务实施标准。实施中华优秀传统文化传承发展工程的意见等基础性制度出台。实施全民健身计划,体育健儿在里约奥运会、残奥会上再创佳绩。冰雪、水上、航空、山地户外等运动加快发展。

3) The supply of better public services was maintained.

The gross enrollment ratio for preschool education came to 77.4%; the retention rate of nine-year compulsory education grew to 93.4%; and the gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education reached 87.5%. The gross enrollment ratio for higher education stood at 42.7%, surpassing the average level of upper-middle-income countries. The modern vocational education system was further improved.

The system for providing basic medical care services for rural and urban residents also improved and the government subsidy for basic public health services increased to 45 yuan per capita per annum, helping to make access to services far more equitable. The Healthy China 2030 Program was issued and implemented. The number of occupational physicians and physician assistants increased to 2.31 per 1,000 people and the number of general practitioners grew to 1.53 per 10,000 people. We ensured smooth implementation of the policy to allow couples to have two children and further improved childbirth services; and China celebrated the births of 17.86 million babies over the course of the year.

The system of public cultural services was further strengthened and all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government worked out standards for providing these services. The basic elements underlying the project to develop and pass on fine Chinese cultural traditions, such as the implementation guidelines, were formulated. The Fitness for All initiative was launched, and Chinese athletes once again achieved great success at the Olympic and Paralympic Games which were held in Rio de Janeiro. Winter, water, and aviation sports, mountaineering and outdoor pursuits, as well as other sports all developed at a faster pace.

专栏13:公共服务供给 新华社发

Box 13: Supply of Public Services
四是保障性安居工程建设扎实推进。加大中央预算内投资和中央财政专项资金支持力度,继续发挥企业债券直接融资作用,支持棚户区住房改造等保障性安居工程。2016年,完成棚户区住房改造600多万套,农村危房改造380多万户。

4) The construction of government-subsidized housing progressed steadily.

We supported government-subsidized housing projects, such as the rebuilding of run-down areas, by increasing central government budgetary investment and special funding in this area and continuing to secure direct financing through corporate bond issuance. In 2016, we rebuilt over six million housing units in run-down urban areas and renovated over 3.8 million dilapidated rural houses.

从计划指标运行情况看,经济增长、就业、价格总水平、国际收支平衡等主要指标保持在合理区间,科技创新、生态环保、民生保障等反映发展质量和效益的指标进一步改善,总的完成情况是好的。 In assessing the overall situation related to the targets set out in the 2016 Plan, we can see that major targets for national and social development, such as the economic growth rate, employment levels, the consumer price index, and the balance of payments, were kept within proper range. While our performance in relation to targets reflecting the quality and benefits of development, such as those concerning scientific and technological innovation, ecological conservation and environmental protection, and people's wellbeing, was further improved. Overall, the 2016 Plan was successfully implemented.
19个约束性指标全部完成。43个预期性指标中,38个指标运行情况符合或高于预期,第一产业、全社会固定资产投资、货物进出口额、广义货币供应量(M2)增长率、城镇居民人均可支配收入5个指标运行值与预期值存在差距。需要说明的是,预期性指标的计划目标不是指令性的,也不是预测值,而是国家期望的发展目标,体现预期和政策导向,实际运行情况可能高于预期目标,也可能低于预期目标。部分指标运行值与预期目标存在差距,主要有以下原因:一是针对农产品阶段性供大于求、库存高企、价格低迷的形势,主动推进种养结构调整,部分主要农产品产量有所回落,因此第一产业增加值增幅略低于预期目标。二是受市场需求偏弱、投资回报下降、企业信心不强等因素综合影响,投资特别是民间投资、制造业投资下行压力较大,加上固定资产投资价格下跌持续时间和幅度超出预期,导致全社会固定资产投资增幅低于预期目标。三是受全球经济复苏乏力、国际贸易需求疲软、针对我国的保护主义加剧等影响,货物贸易进出口虽回稳向好,但仍难以实现预期目标。四是为供给侧结构性改革营造适宜的货币金融环境,在对实体经济提供足够支持的同时,货币供应切实体现了不搞“大水漫灌”和去杠杆、防风险、抑制资产价格泡沫的要求,因此广义货币供应量(M2)增速低于预期目标。五是从收入指标完成情况看,全国居民人均可支配收入增长与经济增长基本同步,受经济下行压力影响,部分行业从业人员工资性收入增幅放缓,导致城镇居民人均可支配收入增幅低于预期目标。

All 19 obligatory targets were achieved as planned. Of the 43 anticipatory targets, 38 were either on target or exceeded, while performance in relation to the remaining five-targets for the primary industry, fixed-asset investment, the total import and export volume of goods, M2 money supply growth rate, and per capita disposable income of urban residents-fell short of expectations. It should be clarified that the anticipatory targets are neither mandatory nor predicted; as development objectives that the government hopes to meet, they are a reflection of the anticipated direction of national development and policy orientation. The actual performance for these targets may be higher or lower than the planned figures.

The major reasons for the discrepancies between the projected figures for these anticipatory targets and actual performance are as follows:

First, to deal with a period of supply in agricultural products outstripping demand as well as a build-up in the inventory of agricultural products and a resulting trend of depressed prices, we took the initiative to adjust what and how much we grow and breed, which caused the output of some major agricultural products to drop off. As a result, the increase in the value-added of the primary industry was slightly lower than the planned figure.

Second, a combination of insufficient market demand, a decrease in returns on investment, and low confidence among enterprises gave rise to considerable downward pressure on investment, particularly investment from private sources and in the manufacturing sector. These factors, as well as a prolonged and larger-than-expected drop in fixed-asset investment prices resulted in the increase in fixed-asset investment being lower than the anticipatory target.

Third, a range of factors, such as a stuttering global economic recovery, weak demand in the international trade market, and increasing protectionism against China, meant that, although the total import and export volume of goods began to rise steadily, it still fell short of projected figure.

Fourth, we needed to ensure that a favorable monetary and financial environment for supply-side structural reform was created. So while ensuring there was sufficient support in place for the real economy, we stayed away from strong stimulus policies affecting money supply that would have an economy-wide impact, and instead worked to deleverage, guard against risks, and prevent an asset price bubble. As a result, the growth rate of M2 money supply fell short of projected figure.

Fifth, in assessing the situation in relation to targets regarding income, we see that increases in per capita disposable personal income stayed basically in step with economic growth. The influence of downward pressure on the economy, however, caused the growth of salary-based incomes for employees in certain industries to slacken. As a result, increase in urban per capita disposable income fell short of the planned figure.

总之,在国内外形势错综复杂的情况下,我国经济增速继续走在世界前列,发展质量和效益提高,经济结构继续优化,人民生活水平持续改善,生态环境有所好转,成绩来之不易。这是党中央、国务院正确领导的结果,是各地区各部门共同努力的结果,是全国各族人民团结奋斗的结果。 To sum up, despite complex situations both at home and abroad, we still made considerable achievements-our country's economic growth rate was still faster than most countries in the world; the quality and efficacy of development grew; the economic structure was further improved; increases in living standards were sustained; and ecosystems and the environment also saw some improvement. These achievements have not come easily. They are a result of the correct leadership of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, the collective hard work of all regions and departments,and the concerted efforts of the people of all our ethnic groups.
同时,我们也清醒地认识到,世界经济仍然在深度调整,复苏动力不足,不稳定和不确定性将进一步凸显,国际投资和贸易低迷,保护主义、内顾倾向抬头。国内经济稳定运行的基础还不牢固,仍面临不少突出矛盾和问题。一是实体经济结构性供需失衡。供给体系产能大多数只能满足中低端、低质量、低价格的需求,随着消费结构加快升级,出口需求和投资需求相对下降,供给结构不适应需求新变化。二是有效需求增长乏力。有效投资特别是民间投资、制造业投资增速较低。经济下行对就业、收入、消费的滞后影响开始显现。国际需求持续低迷,国内综合要素成本不断上涨,产业和订单向外转移加快,我国外贸发展面临的形势更加复杂严峻。三是部分区域、行业、企业困难较大。一些资源型和传统产业比重大的地区,下行压力和发展困难较大。部分行业分化调整的影响,可能沿产业链传导。受市场环境偏紧和经营成本较高双重挤压,企业盈利能力较弱、亏损面较大。四是部分领域风险仍在积累。一些地区财政收支矛盾突出,防控金融风险力度需进一步加大,房地产市场仍面临结构性高房价、高库存双重挑战。五是大气雾霾等环境问题仍然突出。多频次、广区域、长时间、重浓度的雾霾天气,给人民生产生活带来较大影响。与此同时,安全生产、食品药品质量和民生等领域也出现一些新问题。我们要高度重视,准确分析研判国内外形势,增强忧患意识,强化底线思维,保持战略定力,更加有效应对。

While recognizing our achievements, we are also keenly aware that the world economy is still undergoing profound adjustment and that impetus for economic recovery is lacking, instabilities and uncertainties are increasing, international investment and trade are inadequate, and protectionism and other inward-looking trends are on the rise. China's economy is still without a solid enough foundation for ensuring steady development and still faces a number of acute problems.

First, the real economy is beset by a structural imbalance between supply and demand. The majority of production capacity within the supply system can only meet demand for products that are at the middle-to-low end or are of a low price or poor quality. Upgrading within the consumption structure is occurring at an increasingly faster pace; by contrast, export and investment demand are decreasing. These new changes in demand are something that the supply structure has yet to properly adapt to.

Second, growth in effective demand is weak. Effective investment is growing slowly, particularly investment from private sources and in manufacturing. The delayed impact of downward economic pressure on employment, income, and consumption is now starting to show. The increasingly complex and challenging situation relating to China's foreign trade development is marked by persistently weak international demand, rising costs for multiple factors of production at home, and an increase in the pace at which industries and orders for goods are shifting to other countries.

Third, some regions, industries, and enterprises are confronted with serious difficulties. Resource-dependent areas and strongholds of traditional industry are experiencing severe downward pressure and great difficulties in development. There is a possibility that the effects of divergent growth trends and adjustments, which some industries are experiencing, will end up being transmitted throughout the industry chain. Having been pressed by insufficient market demand and comparatively high operational costs, the ability of enterprises to make a profit has decreased and a greater number of enterprises are suffering losses.

Fourth, risks are mounting in some sectors. Notable imbalances exist between government revenue and expenditures in some localities; greater efforts need to be made to guard against and control financial risks; and the real estate market is still facing serious structural challenges on two fronts, with exorbitant housing prices in some cities and overabundant inventory in others.

Fifth, environmental problems such as smog are still grave. Frequent and prolonged periods of heavy smog extending across large areas have greatly affected the work and lives of our people. At the same time, new problems in relation to workplace safety, food and medicine quality, and the people's wellbeing are also emerging.

We must give top priority to these issues, carry out studies and analysis to correctly assess the domestic and international situations, increase our awareness of potential dangers and of the lines that are not to be crossed, and maintain strategic resolve so as to ensure we produce a more effective response.

二、2017年经济社会发展的总体要求、主要目标和政策取向 II. Requirements, Objectives, and Policies for Economic and Social Development in 2017
2017年是实施“十三五”规划的重要一年,是供给侧结构性改革的深化之年。中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会将要召开,具有重大而深远意义。做好2017年经济工作至关重要。 2017 is an important year in implementing the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) and in carrying out further supply-side structural reform. 2017 will also witness the convocation of the 19th National Congress of the CPC, an event of far-reaching significance. So it is of paramount importance for us to effectively carry out our economic work over the coming year.
(一)总体要求 1. General Requirements
在以习近平同志为核心的党中央领导下,高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,全面贯彻党的十八大和十八届三中、四中、五中、六中全会精神,以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,深入贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神和治国理政新理念新思想新战略,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局和协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,牢固树立和贯彻落实新发展理念,适应把握引领经济发展新常态,坚持以提高发展质量和效益为中心,坚持宏观政策要稳、产业政策要准、微观政策要活、改革政策要实、社会政策要托底的政策思路,坚持以推进供给侧结构性改革为主线,适度扩大总需求,加强预期引导,深化创新驱动,全面做好稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生、防风险各项工作,保持经济平稳健康发展和社会和谐稳定,以优异成绩迎接党的十九大胜利召开。

The requirements for 2017 are as follows:

-- uphold the leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core

-- hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics

-- fully implement the guidelines from the 18th National Party Congress and from the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth plenary sessions of the 18th Party Central Committee

-- follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development

-- put into practice the guiding principles from General Secretary Xi Jinping's major addresses and his new concepts, thoughts, and strategies on the governance of China

-- promote coordinated economic, political, cultural, social,and ecological progress and balanced implementation of the Four-Pronged Comprehensive Strategy*

-- seek progress while keeping performance stable

-- build a strong understanding of and put into practice China's new development philosophy

-- adapt to, approach in the right way, and steer the new normal in economic development

-- take strengthening the quality and benefits of development as a core priority

-- ensure macro policies are stable, industrial policies are targeted, micro policies are flexible, reform policies are practical, and that social policies ensure basic needs are met

-- focus on supply-side structural reform

-- expand aggregate demand as appropriate

-- better guide expectations

-- ensure development is increasingly innovation-driven

-- work to keep growth stable, promote reform, make structural adjustments, improve living standards, and guard against risks

-- maintain stable and sound economic development as well as social harmony and stability

Fulfilling these requirements should ensure that we greet the 19th National Party Congress with outstanding achievements.

* To make comprehensive moves to finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, deepen reform, advance the law-based governance of China, and strengthen Party self-governance.

(二)主要预期目标 2. Main Objectives
按照上述总体要求,综合考虑需要和可能,提出2017年经济社会发展的主要预期目标: Keeping the above requirements in mind and fully considering both what is necessary and what is possible, we have set the following objectives for economic and social development in 2017:
——经济增速保持在合理区间。国内生产总值预期增长6.5%左右,在实际工作中争取更好结果。主要考虑:一是符合客观实际。我国经济发展已经进入新常态,经济增速从高速增长转向中高速增长。2016年我国经济总量超过74万亿元,今年预期6.5%左右的增量,超过2016年6.7%的增量,同世界主要国家相比也是很高的速度。二是符合全面建成小康社会目标要求。与“十三五”规划目标相衔接,在2016年已经实现6.7%增长的基础上,今后4年,只要年均增长6.5%左右,就可以实现2020年国内生产总值比2010年翻一番的目标。三是能够满足就业目标需要。保持经济发展速度、推动经济发展,根本还是要不断解决好人民群众普遍关心的突出问题。四是有利于形成良好社会预期。2017年面临的国内外环境仍然复杂多变,要引导各方面更加注重坚持以提高发展质量和效益为中心,集中精力推动结构优化升级,积极应对各种不确定因素影响,为深入推进供给侧结构性改革创造良好环境。

-- Economic growth within an appropriate range

GDP is projected to grow by 6.5% approximately; however in practice, we will strive for better. In setting this objective, we have taken the following into account:

First, the projected GDP growth rate is in keeping with conditions in China. Our country is in a new normal in economic development, having shifted from a high to a medium-high growth rate. In 2016 China's aggregate economic output exceeded 74 trillion yuan; and this year's projected growth rate of around 6.5% will result in a larger increase in economic output than last year's increase resulting from a 6.7% growth rate. Moreover, a growth rate of 6.5% is much higher than most major economies.

Second, the projected growth rate is in line with the goal of finishing building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. China's economy grew by 6.7% in 2016, so an average growth rate of around 6.5% over the next four years would be sufficient to accomplish the objective set out in the 13th Five-Year Plan to ensure that China's GDP in 2020 is double what it was in 2010.

Third, a 6.5% growth rate is needed to achieve the employment objective. All efforts to keep the economy growing at an appropriate rate and to promote economic development are for nothing more than to address the problems which are of most concern to the public.

Fourth, this rate of growth is conducive to fostering healthy public expectations. Facing complex and volatile situations at home and abroad in 2017, we need to provide guidance to all sectors of society so as to focus efforts on improving the quality and benefits of development and promoting structural improvement and upgrading, ensure a proactive response to the impact arising from various uncertainties, and create a favorable environment for supply-side structural reform.

图表9:国内生产总值和经济增长率 新华社发

Figure 9. GDP and Growth Rate
——就业形势保持总体稳定。城镇新增就业1100万人以上,比2016年预期目标多100万人,城镇登记失业率控制在4.5%以内。主要考虑:一是就业压力较大。预计2017年仍有1500万左右新成长劳动力进入市场,加上去产能行业职工转岗需求有所增加,考虑退休等腾退的城镇就业岗位,需要新增约1100万人的城镇就业。二是就业容量不断扩大。随着产业结构调整,特别是创新创业和服务业发展,就业弹性系数明显提高,6.5%左右的经济增长,可以实现就业目标,实际完成数量还可以力争更多一些。三是实现城乡居民收入增长与经济增长基本同步的需要。体现了党和政府以人民为中心的发展思想和民生为先、就业为本的执政理念,有利于稳定预期和增强发展信心。

-- Overall stable employment

Over 11 million new urban jobs will be created, 1 million more than the projection for 2016, and the registered urban unemployment rate should stay within 4.5%. In setting these objectives, we have taken the following into account:

First, employment pressure is mounting. About 15 million new workers will enter the job market in 2017, and there will also be a slightly larger number of laid-off workers that need to be reemployed in other industries due to the scaling-down of overcapacity; on the other hand, we will see jobs opening up in urban areas as a result of retirements. Taking these factors into consideration, we need to create around 11 million new urban jobs this year.

Second, employment capacity continues to increase. Due to adjustments in the structure of industry, particularly in terms of entrepreneurship and innovation and the development of the service sector, China's employment elasticity has risen considerably. A growth rate of around 6.5% should ensure that we fulfill our employment target and will allow us to work toward exceeding it.

Third, we need to ensure increases in personal income are basically in step with economic growth. These objectives are a reflection of the Party and government's vision of people-centered development as well as the governance principle that the people's wellbeing comes first and ensuring employment is a top priority. They are also conducive to ensuring stable public expectations and strengthening people's confidence in development.

——价格总水平基本稳定。居民消费价格涨幅预期目标为3%左右。主要考虑:一是2017年翘尾因素约为0.6%,与去年基本持平。二是2016年9月以来,工业生产者出厂价格指数(PPI)由负转正,工业领域通缩压力有所缓解,但PPI向下游产业和终端消费传导,以及进口商品价格传导和国际大宗商品价格上升走势的影响,将会形成新的涨价因素。三是为价格改革预留出空间。

-- Overall stable prices

The CPI is projected to increase by around 3%. In setting this objective, we have taken the following into account:

First, the carryover effect from the CPI increase in 2016 will be 0.6%, which is basically the same as that of the year before.

Second, the producer price index (PPI) shifted from negative to positive territory in September 2016 and has remained there ever since, and the deflationary pressure on manufacturing has eased to some extent. However, as the effects of the PPI increase are transmitted to downstream industries and toward end consumption, and as the prices of imported goods and international commodity prices rise, new factors will emerge to push up prices.

Third, such a CPI increase leaves us with room to undertake price reform.

——国际收支保持基本平衡。继续促进货物贸易回稳向好,服务贸易较快增长,利用外资规模保持稳定,对外投资健康发展。主要考虑:一是世界经济和贸易增长低迷的状况短期内难以改变,但随着促进外贸稳增长调结构政策成效进一步显现,货物进出口有望继续回稳向好。二是电信、计算机和信息等高附加值服务出口继续较快增长,服务贸易结构将更加优化。三是大力营造公平、透明、可预期的法治化市场营商环境,利用外资将保持稳定,质量将进一步提高。四是对外投资活跃,为避免非理性投资引发经营、债务等风险,应稳妥有序推进对外投资。

-- A basic balance in international payments

We will continue to promote a steady rise in the trade of goods, rapid growth in the trade of services, stability in the use of foreign investment, and the healthy development of outbound investment. In setting these objectives, we have taken the following into account:

First, a turnaround in global economic and trade growth is unlikely in the short term. However, as the policy for promoting steady growth and structural adjustment in foreign trade continues to have an effect, the volume of trade in goods is expected to pick up again.

Second, as the export of high-value-added services such as telecommunications, computers, and information continues to increase rapidly, the structure of trade in services will improve.

Third, significant efforts will be made to create a fair, transparent, and predictable law-based market environment so as to ensure foreign investment remains stable and improves in quality.

Fourth, outbound investment will be robust. In order to avoid irrational investment which may give rise to operational or debt risks, growth in this area should be promoted in an orderly and prudent manner.

——发展的质量和效益进一步提高。消费对经济增长的贡献率提高。农业基础进一步加强,去产能工作扎实推进,战略性新兴产业加快发展,服务业增加值占国内生产总值的比重继续提高。研究与试验发展经费投入强度和科技进步贡献率进一步提高。单位国内生产总值能耗下降3.4%以上、二氧化碳排放下降4.0%,主要污染物排放量继续下降,大气、水环境质量进一步改善。主要考虑:贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念,促进产业转型升级、提质增效,全面提高产品和服务质量,加强节能环保和生态建设,符合推进供给侧结构性改革的要求,有利于创造新的增长点,提高经济增长潜力,推动经济保持中高速增长、迈向中高端水平。

-- Improved quality and benefits in development

The contribution of consumption to economic growth will increase. The foundation of agriculture will be further strengthened; solid progress will be made in cutting overcapacity; the development of emerging strategic industries will be accelerated; and increases in the contribution of the value-added of the service sector to GDP will be sustained. More will be spent on research and development and there will be an increase in the contribution of scientific and technological progress to economic growth. Energy consumption per unit of GDP will be reduced by at least 3.4%, carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP will be cut by 4.0%, reductions in the emissions of major pollutants will continue, and air and water quality will be further improved. In setting these objectives, we have taken the following into account:

We need to put into practice the philosophy of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development; see that industries are transformed and upgraded, that their quality and performance improves, and that the quality of all products and services increases; and ensure that energy conservation, environmental protection, and ecological improvement efforts are strengthened. These objectives are in line with the efforts to advance supply-side structural reform, and can help to create new growth areas, increase the potential for economic growth, and ensure the economy maintains a medium-high growth rate and moves toward the medium-high end.

图表10:三次产业占国内生产总值比重 新华社发

Figure 10. Contribution to GDP by the Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Industries
——民生福祉进一步改善。农村贫困人口再减少1000万人以上,完成340万人易地扶贫搬迁建设任务。户籍人口城镇化率提高1个百分点以上,农业转移人口和其他常住人口在城镇落户1300万人以上。教育卫生文化等基本公共服务均等化水平进一步提高,义务教育巩固率和高中阶段教育毛入学率稳步提高。社会保障制度进一步完善,覆盖面继续扩大,保障水平适度提升。城乡居民基本医保人均财政补助标准提高到450元,大病保险筹资水平进一步提高。人口自然增长率7.5‰左右。主要考虑:全面落实以人民为中心的发展思想,在学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居上持续取得新进展。

-- Improvements in living standards

The number of people living in poverty in rural areas will be reduced by at least 10 million, and 3.4 million people will be relocated from inhospitable areas so as to help them shake off poverty. The percentage of registered urban residents will increase by more than 1 percentage point. Urban residency will be granted to an additional 13 million people with rural household registration living in urban areas and other permanent urban residents. Access to basic public services such as education, health, and culture will become more equitable. The retention rate of compulsory education and the gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education will continue to rise. The social security system will be further improved with more beneficiaries receiving coverage and an appropriate increase in benefits. Per capita government subsidies for basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents will increase to 450 yuan, while the level of financing for the major disease insurance scheme will also be raised. The natural population growth rate will be about 7.5 thousandths. In setting these objectives, we have taken the following into account:

We must fully implement our vision of people-centered development and work for further progress in ensuring that the Chinese people enjoy the rights to education, employment, medical treatment, old-age care, and housing.

图表11:城镇居民、农村居民收入增长及城乡居民收入比 新华社发

Figure 11. Urban and Rural Personal Income: Increases and Comparisons
(三)宏观经济政策取向 3. Macroeconomic policies
中央经济工作会议强调,稳中求进工作总基调是治国理政的重要原则,也是做好经济工作的方法论。2017年贯彻好这个总基调具有特别重要的意义。稳是主基调,稳是大局,在稳的前提下要在关键领域有所进取,在把握好度的前提下奋发有为。实现2017年经济社会发展目标,要坚持稳中求进工作总基调,保持宏观经济政策连续性和稳定性,继续实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策。财政政策要更加积极有效,今年赤字率拟按3%安排,财政赤字2.38万亿元,比去年增加2000亿元。货币政策要保持稳健中性,今年广义货币M2和社会融资规模余额预期增长均为12%左右。 At the recent Central Economic Work Conference, it was noted that seeking progress while keeping performance stable was not only an important governance principle but also an effective method for carrying out economic work. It is particularly important to uphold this principle in 2017. Stability is of primary and overarching significance: under the condition of keeping performance stable, we will work for progress in key sectors, and under the condition of maintaining a well-balanced pace of work, we will strive to deliver better results. To attain the objectives for economic and social development in 2017, we must seek progress while keeping performance stable, maintain the continuity and stability of macroeconomic policies, and continue to implement a proactive fiscal policy and a prudent monetary policy. We must ensure that fiscal policy is more proactive and effective; a debt-GDP ratio of 3% is projected for this year and the government deficit will be 2.38 trillion yuan, an increase of 200 billion yuan over last year. We must also ensure that prudency and neutrality is maintained in monetary policy; both the M2 money supply and aggregate financing in the economy are expected to grow by around 12% in 2017.
同时,加强各方面政策协调配合,统筹协调运用好中国特色宏观调控政策,更好发挥财政、货币、改革、产业、创新、就业、区域、投资、消费、贸易、价格、土地、环保等政策的协同组合效应,提高政策的精准性和有效性。 At the same time, we will strengthen coordination and support between policies, make effective use of macroeconomic policies with Chinese characteristics, and see that fiscal, monetary, reform, industrial, innovation, employment, regional, investment, consumption, trade, pricing, land, and environmental protection policies work together more effectively and that their precision and efficacy increase.
以财政、货币政策为支撑,投资、消费、贸易等政策为配合,供给侧结构性改革政策发力,着力化解供需结构性矛盾。大力实施减税降费政策,充分发挥中央财政资金“四两拨千斤”的引导带动作用,持续推进“放管服”改革、国企改革、价格改革,强化精准产业政策指导,着力纾缓实体经济困难。加大财政金融政策支持,实施差别化区域政策,注重就业和社会保障政策兜底,着力促进区域协调协同发展。深入推进农业供给侧结构性改革,完善农业补贴、投资、信贷、保险、用地等政策,支持农业技术创新,着力解决三农领域问题。通过稳健的货币政策、精准的产业政策和土地政策,深化金融体制改革,强化市场监管,防范和化解财政金融风险,着力防控资金脱实向虚和房地产波动风险。加大政策解读和信息发布力度,进一步完善产权保护制度,着力引导形成良好社会预期。具体工作中,注重聚焦“6个关键领域”着力攻坚,带动全局发展。

-- Addressing structural conflicts between supply and demand

With fiscal and monetary policies as main pillars, and with the support of investment, consumption, and trade policies, we will work to exert the role of supply-side structural reform policy.

-- Alleviating the difficulties in the real economy

We will take strong measures to cut taxes and fees, fully utilize central government investment to guide and attract investment from private sources; continue to promote reforms on SOEs, on pricing, and on streamlining administration, delegating more powers, improving regulation, and providing better services; and provide more targeted policy guidance.

-- Promoting coordinated and integrated development between regions

We will increase fiscal and financial policy support, implement differentiated regional policies, and ensure that employment and social security policies meet basic needs.

-- Solving problems related to agriculture, rural areas, and farmers

We will fully carry out supply-side structural reform in agriculture, improve agriculture-related subsidy, investment, credit, insurance, and land-use policies, and support technological innovation in agriculture.

-- Preventing investment from being diverted out of the real economy and controlling real estate fluctuations

By utilizing prudent monetary policy and targeted industrial and land policies, we will deepen financial reforms, strengthen market oversight, and prevent and defuse fiscal and financial risks.

-- Providing guidance to ensure positive public expectations

We will do more to explain government policies and to release information to the public and will further improve the property rights protection system.

In relation to specific work, we will focus on the following six areas so as to advance overall development.

一是聚焦制度创新激发市场活力。深化重要领域和关键环节改革,强化体制机制创新,增加制度供给,有针对性解决制约经济社会发展的突出矛盾和问题,提高改革整体效能,力求取得新的突破。

First, carrying on institutional innovation to revitalize the market

We will deepen reform in major areas and key sectors, step up innovation in systems and mechanisms, increase institutional supply, take targeted steps to solve prominent conflicts and problems holding back economic and social development, improve the overall effectiveness of reform, and strive for further breakthroughs.

二是聚焦振兴实体经济提升供给水平。深入推进“三去一降一补”,加快产业政策创新转型,优化生产力布局,努力实现供给体系由中低端产品为主向适应需求变化的中高端产品为主转变。

Second, revitalizing the real economy to provide better products

We will intensify efforts to cut overcapacity, reduce excess inventory, deleverage, lower costs, and strengthen areas of weakness; move faster to create new industrial policies and upgrade old ones, and improve the distribution of productive forces, in a bid to bring about a shift from a supply of predominantly medium-low end products to mainly supplying medium-high end ones that conform to changes in demand.

三是聚焦创新驱动培育壮大新动能。全面实施创新驱动发展战略,完善创新支持政策体系,着力增加创新资源供给,深入推进大众创业万众创新,促进发展动能接续转换,提高全要素生产率。

Third, advancing innovation-driven development to foster and strengthen new driving forces

We will fully implement the innovation-driven development strategy, improve policies in support of innovation, increase the supply of innovative resources, provide greater encouragement for business startups and innovations by the general public, promote the replacement of old drivers of development with new ones, and ensure total-factor productivity increases.

四是聚焦扩大有效需求稳定宏观环境。顺应需求升级大趋势,努力增加高品质产品和服务供给,提高政府投资效率,激发民间投资、社会资本活力,促进供给结构和需求结构有效匹配、消费升级和有效投资良性互动,实现更高质量、更有效率、更加公平、更可持续的发展。

Fourth, increasing effective demand to keep the macro environment stable

As the upgrade in demand continues, we will work to increase the supply of quality goods and services and the efficiency of government investment, inject vigor into private investment and private capital, and work to create a balance between supply and demand and a healthy interaction between upgraded consumption and effective investment, so as to ensure development becomes better in quality, more efficient, more equitable, and more sustainable.

五是聚焦重点领域重点区域有效防范化解风险。增强忧患意识,坚持底线思维,以防范金融风险、企业杠杆率过高、房地产市场泡沫积累、地方政府性债务及基层财政困难等风险为重点,创新完善风险处置方式,坚决守住底线,维护社会大局稳定。

Fifth, effectively preventing and defusing risks in key sectors and regions

We will become more aware of potential dangers and keep in mind worst-case scenarios. With a focus on preventing financial risks, excessive corporate leverage, an accumulation of property bubbles, inflated local government debt, and financial difficulties among county and township governments as well as other risks, we will create new and better ways of dealing with risk and never allow the line to be crossed on these risks so as to safeguard social stability.

六是聚焦民生改善促进社会和谐。落实以人民为中心的发展思想,着力化解结构性就业矛盾,推进精准扶贫精准脱贫,提高基本公共服务水平,加快发展教育、养老、卫生计生、文化、体育等社会事业,采取有力有效措施,改善生态环境,提升人民群众获得感和幸福度。

Sixth, improving people's lives to promote social harmony

Guided by the vision of people-centered development, we will work to solve the structural problems related to employment, use targeted measures to tackle poverty, provide better basic public services, speed up the development of social programs such as education, elderly care, health and family planning, culture, and sports, and take stronger, more effective measures to improve the environment so as to ensure our people have a greater sense of benefit and a higher level of happiness.

三、2017年经济社会发展的主要任务 III. Major Tasks for Economic and Social Development in 2017
2017年,将坚持稳中求进工作总基调,紧紧围绕供给侧结构性改革这条主线,贯彻新发展理念,引领经济新常态,着力抓好9方面工作。 In 2017, we will continue to uphold the general principle of seeking progress while keeping performance stable, take supply-side structural reform as our main task, and apply the new development philosophy, so as to steer the new normal in the economy. Our efforts will focus on the following nine areas.
(一)推动“三去一降一补”重点任务取得实质性进展。贯彻落实党中央、国务院关于供给侧结构性改革的总体部署,深入推进五大重点任务,减少无效低效供给、扩大有效供给,提高盈利能力。

1. Promoting substantive progress in the priority tasks of cutting overcapacity, reducing excess inventory, deleveraging, lowering costs, and strengthening points of weakness.

In line with the CPC Central Committee and the State Council's overall arrangements for supply-side structural reform, we will intensify efforts to fulfill the five priority tasks, reduce ineffective and inefficient supply while increasing effective supply, and improve the profit-making ability of enterprises.

一是扎扎实实化解过剩产能。今年再压减钢铁产能5000万吨左右,退出煤炭产能1.5亿吨以上。同时,淘汰、停建、缓建煤电产能5000万千瓦以上,以防范化解煤电产能过剩风险,提高煤电行业效率,优化能源结构,为清洁能源发展腾空间。充分运用市场化法治化手段,统筹处理好去产能与稳定供应、优化结构、转型升级的关系。将处置“僵尸企业”作为化解过剩产能的“牛鼻子”,严格执行环保、能耗、质量、安全等法律法规和标准,更加严格控制新增产能,更加坚决淘汰落后产能,更加严厉打击违法违规行为。创造条件推动企业兼并重组,妥善处置企业债务,做好人员安置工作。对符合条件的职工分流安置继续给予财政奖补资金支持。

1) We will make concrete efforts to scale down overcapacity.

This year, we will cut production capacity by around 50 million metric tons of steel and over 150 million metric tons of coal. At the same, we will shut down, stop, or suspend the construction of coal-fired power plants with a capacity of more than 50 million kilowatts, so as to guard against and defuse overcapacity risks in the coal-fired power industry and enhance its efficiency, while also improving the energy mix and creating space for the development of clean energy. Making full use of market-oriented and law-based means, we will work to strike an overall balance between the efforts to scale down overcapacity, ensure stable supply, improve the industrial structure, and transform and upgrade industries.

Our efforts to address the issue of "zombie enterprises" will constitute a key approach in cutting overcapacity. By strictly enforcing laws, regulations, and standards with regard to environmental protection, energy consumption, quality, and safety, we will intensify efforts to control the expansion of production capacity, shut down outdated production facilities, and crack down on violations of laws and regulations in this regard. Proper conditions will be created for promoting the merging and restructuring of enterprises, and proper arrangements will be put in place to handle debts and resettle laid-off workers. We will continue to make government funds available for rewards and subsidies in this regard.

二是坚持因城因地施策去库存。因地制宜、多种方式提高棚改货币化安置比例,加快实施1亿非户籍人口在城市落户方案,支持城镇居民改善性住房需求,规范发展住房租赁市场。按照“房子是用来住的、不是用来炒的”的定位,分类调控、因城施策,综合运用金融、土地、财税、投资、立法等手段,加快建立和完善促进房地产市场平稳健康发展长效机制,遏制热点城市房价过快上涨。研究按照建立住宅政策性金融机构的方向,探讨住房公积金制度改革,支持居民自住需求。

2) We will continue to cut excess inventory by implementing policies tailored to local conditions.

We will take multiple, locally practicable measures to grant direct monetary housing compensation rather than housing to more people displaced by the redevelopment of run-down urban areas, move faster to implement the plan for granting urban residency to 100 million people without urban household registration living in urban areas, support the demand of urban residents for buying a second home if their first homes are inadequate, and ensure well-regulated development of the housing rental market.

In line with the principle that "houses are for habitation not speculation," we will exercise regulation on a per-category basis, implement place-based policies in different cities, and fully utilize financial, land, fiscal, tax, and investment policies as well as legislation, so as to accelerate efforts to establish a sound permanent mechanism for ensuring the steady and healthy development of the real estate industry and keep housing prices from rising too quickly in popular cities. In working toward establishing policy-backed financial institutions specializing in housing, we will carry out research on reforming the housing provident fund system; and we will support people's demand for housing for personal use.

三是积极稳妥降低企业杠杆率。通过兼并重组、依法破产等途径,推动“僵尸企业”出清。支持银行、实施机构和企业通过自主协商开展市场化债转股。发展股权融资,加强疏通股本融资渠道,强化企业自身财务杠杆约束。

3) We will lower leverage ratios of enterprises in a proactive yet prudent manner.

By means of merger, restructuring, and bankruptcy, we will promote a clearing out of zombie enterprises. We will encourage banks, relevant institutions, and enterprises to carry out market-based debt-to-equity swaps on the basis of negotiations between themselves. We will develop equity financing, broaden its financing channels, and place tighter constraints on the leveraging activities of enterprises.

四是持续综合施策降低实体经济成本。进一步减少审批环节,清理取消行政审批中介服务违规收费,降低不合理中介评估费用,降低企业制度性交易成本。在减税、降费、降低要素成本上加大工作力度,大幅降低非税负担,降低融资成本,降低企业用能用地成本,降低物流成本,提高劳动力市场灵活性,支持企业内部挖潜、降本增效。深入开展涉企收费清理规范工作,落实好减税降费等各项惠企政策,减少政府定价的涉企经营性收费,进一步清理规范政府性基金、行政事业性收费和经营服务性收费,推动降低金融、铁路货运等领域涉企经营性收费,创新涉企收费监管制度,加强对市场调节类经营性收费的监管。继续加大工程建设领域保证金清理力度。

4) We will continue to implement a full range of measures for reducing costs in the real economy.

We will further simplify approval procedures, overhaul or abolish irregular fees charged by administrative review intermediaries, and reduce unreasonably high intermediary and evaluation fees so as to lower the transaction costs of enterprises imposed by the government. Efforts will be enhanced to cut taxes, fees, and the costs of factors of production;greatly reduce non-tax burdens; lower financing costs, enterprise energy and land-use costs, and logistics costs; increase the flexibility of the labor market; and encourage enterprises to tap internal potential for reducing costs and increasing efficiency.

We will intensify efforts to review and regulate fees and charges related to enterprises; implement preferential policies to reduce taxes and fees levied on them; cut the number of service fees for which pricing is set by the government; further review and regulate government-managed funds, administrative charges, and business service fees; and work to lower fees and charges related to financial and railway freight services levied on enterprises. In addition, we will create new oversight systems for fees and charges related to enterprises and tighten oversight over those business service fees for which pricing is market-based. We will redouble efforts to review security deposits in the construction industry.

五是提高补短板的精准性和有效性。适当增加中央预算内投资,调整优化投资结构,集中用于脱贫攻坚、农业、灾后水利薄弱环节、软硬基础设施、创新能力建设等补短板重点领域。全面推进“十三五”规划《纲要》明确的165项重大工程项目。

5) We will bolster points of weakness in a more targeted and effective fashion.

We will moderately increase investment from the central government budget and improve its structure, channeling it toward key areas such as poverty alleviation, agriculture, weak links in post-disaster water conservancy recovery and reconstruction, hard and soft infrastructure, and the enhancement of innovation capacity. We will comprehensively advance the 165 major projects set out in the 13th Five-Year Plan.

(二)深入推进农业供给侧结构性改革。优化农业产业体系、生产体系和经营体系,加快培育农业农村发展新动能,狠抓农产品标准化生产、品牌创建、质量安全监管,促进农业提质增效、可持续发展。2017年粮食总产量稳定在5.5亿吨以上。

2. We will intensify supply-side structural reform in the agricultural sector.

We will improve the industrial, production, and operational systems in the agricultural sector, step up efforts to foster new drivers for agricultural and rural development, and take serious measures to facilitate standardized production, brand building, and supervision over the quality and safety of agricultural products, with a view to raising the quality and performance of the agricultural sector and to ensuring its sustainable development. In 2017, total grain output will stand at over 550 million metric tons.

一是调好调顺调优农业结构。支持粮食、棉花、油料、糖料、天然橡胶等重要农产品生产基地建设和畜牧水产标准化规模养殖,加快国家级育制种基地和种养业良种工程建设。全面落实永久基本农田特殊保护政策,划定并建设粮食生产功能区、重要农产品生产保护区,制定特色农产品优势区建设规划,继续开展粮改饲、粮改豆试点,继续调减非优势产区籽粒玉米,扩大青贮玉米、苜蓿等优质牧草生产。稳定生猪生产并推动布局优化,提高乳制品质量。推进水产养殖减量增效,养护长江等重点水域水生生物资源。大力推进农产品标准化生产、品牌创建和保护,实施农产品质量安全工程。推进耕地轮作休耕制度试点,促进耕地草原河湖休养生息。深入实施化肥农药使用量零增长行动,推进畜禽养殖废弃物无害化处理和资源化利用。开展农业循环经济试点和工农复合型循环经济示范区(基地)建设,推进农业可持续发展试验示范区创建。

1) We will work toward a sound, smooth, and optimal agricultural structure.

We will facilitate the development of production centers for major agricultural products such as grain, cotton, oilseed, sugar crops, and natural rubber, support standardized, large-scale livestock and aquaculture farming, and step up the construction of national seed cultivation and production centers and the development of projects for breeding superior varieties within crop, livestock, and aquaculture farming.

In addition to comprehensively implementing policies for providing special protection to permanent basic cropland, we will establish and develop functional zones for grain production and protective areas for the production of major agricultural products. We will formulate the plan for boosting the production of local agricultural products in areas with unique advantages, and continue with the trials to replace grain crop cultivation with feed crop cultivation and soybean cultivation. The production of corn kernel in inferior production areas will continue to be reduced and the production of high-quality forage crops, such as corn silage and alfalfa, will be expanded. We will stabilize the production of hogs and push for an optimal layout in this regard, and will increase the quality of dairy products. Production for aquaculture products will be reduced while the efficiency will be increased, and conservation efforts will be made on the Yangtze River and other key water bodies to protect aquatic organism resources.

For agricultural products, we will promote standardized production and brand development and protection, and will work to ensure quality and safety. We will carry forward crop-rotation and fallow-land trials, and promote the adoption of fallow periods for cropland and grassland and fishing moratoriums for rivers and lakes. We will carry out the initiative to achieve zero growth in the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and advance safe disposal and recycling of waste from livestock and poultry farming. We will undertake trials for creating a circular economy in the agricultural sector, develop hybrid industry-agriculture circular economy demonstration zones and centers, and establish pilot and demonstration zones for sustainable agricultural development.

二是持续加强农业农村基础设施建设。继续推进172项重大水利工程建设,力争再新开工15项。加快高标准农田、农田水利、农村饮水安全巩固提升、现代种业、规模化养殖场、粮油仓储物流设施、公益性农产品批发市场等建设。启动农业、林业领域政府和社会资本合作(PPP)试点。实施农村新能源行动,支持中西部农村等基础薄弱区域信息基础设施和高效节水灌溉设施建设,加快完善县乡村物流网络。

2) We will continue to enhance agricultural and rural infrastructure.

We will move ahead with the development of 172 major water conservancy projects, and work to make a start on 15 more. Accelerated efforts will be made to develop high-grade cropland, farmland irrigation and water conservancy, and the modern seed industry, as well as large-scale livestock farms, storage and logistics facilities for grain and edible oil, and public-welfare wholesale markets for agricultural products. We will also work faster to consolidate and build on the achievements made in ensuring safe drinking water in rural areas.

Trials will be launched to apply the PPP model to the farming and forestry industries. We will carry out initiatives to promote the use of new energy in rural areas, support the development of information infrastructure and efficient water-saving irrigation facilities in rural areas with weak infrastructure in the central and western regions, and accelerate efforts to improve logistics networks for counties, townships, and villages.

三是加快农业科技创新。培育改良优质专用营养农畜品种,大力开发推广绿色高效种养技术,支持食品等加工业技术改造。建设一批农业重点实验室和国家农业科学实验站。完善农业科技创新激励机制,深入推进科研成果权益改革试点。推进基层农技推广体系改革,探索公益性机构和农技人员参与经营性服务的新机制,推动节本降耗、效益强农。启动智慧农业引领工程,全面实施信息进村入户工程,扩大农业物联网试验示范范围。

3) We will step up innovations in agricultural science and technology.

We will promote the raising of better quality, specific, and healthy crop varieties and livestock breeds, strive to develop and apply green and efficient technologies for farming and breeding, and support technological transformation of the food and other processing industries. A number of major agricultural laboratories and national agricultural science research stations will be developed. We will improve incentive mechanisms for innovations in agricultural science and technology, and move ahead with trial reforms for allowing agricultural scientists to receive greater benefits for their scientific achievements. We will further reform the system for applying agricultural technology in villages, explore new mechanisms for allowing public institutions and agricultural technicians to engage in for-profit services, and facilitate the reduction of costs and energy consumption and the enhancement of efficiency to bolster agricultural growth.

We will launch initiatives that ensure intelligent agriculture leads China's agricultural modernization, fully implement the project to bring information technology to villages and rural households, and expand trials and demonstrations for the application of the Internet of Things in the agricultural sector.

四是发展壮大农村新产业新业态。深入推进农村产业融合发展试点示范工程,引导二三产业向县城、重点乡镇及产业园区集中,启动建设“生产+加工+科技”的现代农业产业园。支持符合条件的涉农企业发行企业债券,建设产业融合发展项目。落实“互联网+”现代农业三年行动方案。深入开展电子商务进农村综合示范。推进农业与旅游、文化、康养等产业深度融合,建设一批产业文化旅游“三位一体”、生产生活生态同步改善、一二三产业深度融合的特色村镇。

4) We will develop new industries and new forms of business in rural areas.

We will advance pilot and demonstration projects for integrating rural industries, channel secondary and tertiary industries toward county seats, key towns and townships, and industrial parks, and begin building modern agricultural industrial parks that integrate production, processing, and science and technology. We will support eligible agricultural enterprises in issuing corporate bonds and launching projects for integrated development of rural industries.

We will implement the three-year action plan for Internet Plus modern agriculture, and establish comprehensive demonstrations for introducing e-commerce into rural areas. We will promote in-depth integration of agriculture with the tourism, cultural, fitness, and elderly-care industries. Development will be pursued in a host of towns and villages that brings together industry, culture, and tourism, secures simultaneous improvements in working, living, and ecological conditions, and fully integrates the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries.

五是加快深化农业农村改革。积极稳妥推进粮食等重要农产品价格形成机制和收储制度改革。坚持并完善稻谷、小麦最低收购价政策,合理调整最低收购价水平,形成合理比价关系。健全东北地区玉米市场化收购加补贴机制,稳步有序推进政策性粮食库存消化。完善棉花目标价格政策,调整大豆目标价格政策。完善农业补贴制度,落实好以绿色生态为导向的农业补贴制度改革。全面推进农业水价综合改革。深化农村集体产权制度改革,明晰农村集体产权归属,赋予农民更加充分的财产权利。改革财政支农投入机制,推动涉农资金整合。贯彻落实承包土地“三权分置”办法,统筹推进农村土地征收、集体经营性用地入市、宅基地制度改革试点。培育壮大农业新型经营主体和服务主体,发展多种形式的土地适度规模经营。在部分地区对适度规模经营农户实施大灾保险。完善农业再保险体系,以持续稳健的农业保险助力现代农业发展。

5) We will press ahead with agricultural and rural reform.

A proactive yet prudent approach will be adopted in promoting reforms of the price-setting mechanism for grain and other important agricultural products as well as the system for their purchase and storage. We will continue to implement and improve the policy for setting minimum state-purchase prices for rice and wheat, and make appropriate adjustments to minimum purchase prices, so as to ensure a rational ratio of minimum purchase prices to market prices. We will enhance the price-setting mechanism for corn in the northeast that combines market-based purchase prices and supplementary government subsidies, and reduce excess stockpiles of policy-supported grain in a steady and orderly manner. We will improve the policy for guaranteeing base prices for cotton and adjust the pricing policy for soybeans. Improvements will be made to the system of agricultural subsidies, ensuring that relevant reforms are oriented toward green development and ecological progress. Comprehensive reform of pricing for water used in agriculture will be advanced across the board.

Reform of the rural collective property-rights system will be deepened to clearly identify rural collective property rights and to grant rural residents more adequate property rights. We will reform the mechanism for ensuring budgetary support for agriculture and work to merge rural-development funds. We will implement measures for separating land ownership rights, contract rights, and management rights for contracted rural land. We will make overall arrangements to carry out trial reforms with regard to rural land requisition, the marketization of rural collective land designated for commercial construction, and the system for rural residential land. We will cultivate new types of agribusiness and agricultural service providers, and promote the development of suitably scaled-up operations of land in diversified forms.

A catastrophe insurance scheme will be introduced in some regions for farmers whose operations are suitably scaled-up. We will improve the agricultural reinsurance system and ensure sustainable and sound agricultural insurance schemes provide strong support for the development of modern agriculture.

(三)进一步释放国内需求潜力。注重创新供给激活需求,夯实内需基础。

3. We will continue to tap the potential of domestic demand.

We will lay emphasis on tapping demand through innovative forms of supply and consolidating the foundation of domestic demand.

一方面,促进居民消费扩大和升级。持续推进“十大扩消费行动”,顺应消费需求变化新趋势,以改革创新增加消费领域特别是服务消费和绿色消费有效供给,保持消费平稳增长。2017年社会消费品零售总额预期增长10%左右。放宽服务业准入限制和社会领域投资管理。积极发展医养结合、文化创意、全域旅游等新兴消费,支持社会力量提供教育、文化、养老、医疗等服务。促进数字家庭、在线教育、虚拟现实等信息消费。开展加快内贸流通创新推动供给侧结构性改革扩大消费专项行动,推动实体店销售和网购融合发展。保护和传承中华老字号。扩大内外销产品“同线同标同质”实施范围。大力发展冷链物流。建立健全食品药品等的质量安全标准和追溯体系。加大价格监管和反垄断执法力度,保护消费者合法权益。强化收入分配改革激励导向,实施重点群体激励计划,开展城乡居民增收综合配套政策试点。

On the one hand, we will work to expand and upgrade consumer spending.

We will continue to advance the Ten Initiatives for Boosting Consumer Spending; respond to new trends in consumer demand; promote reform and innovation so as to increase effective supply to consumers, especially in service and green industries; and keep consumption growing steadily. Total retail sales of consumer goods are expected to increase by around 10% in 2017.

Restrictions on entry into service industries will be loosened and regulation over investment in the social domain will be relaxed. We will work to develop emerging areas of consumption such as combined medical and care services for the elderly, cultural & creative industries, and all-for-one tourism, and support nongovernmental participants in providing educational,cultural, elderly care, and medical services. Efforts will be made to promote consumption of information goods and services in areas such as digital homes, online education, and virtual reality. We will launch campaigns to speed up innovations in domestic commodity distribution, promote supply-side structural reform, and boost consumer spending. We will promote the integrated development of brick-and-mortar stores and online shopping.

China time-honored brands will be protected and carried forward. We will ensure that more domestically sold products come off the same production lines, meet the same standards, and are of the same quality as export products. We will work to achieve robust development in cold-chain logistics. Sound systems will be established to ensure the quality and safety standards of food and medicine and to allow for product traceability. Pricing oversight will be intensified and law enforcement will be stepped up to tackle monopolistic pricing so as to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of consumers.

We will enhance incentive-based income distribution reform, implement incentive plans for key groups, and carry out trials for comprehensive and coordinated policies on increasing urban and rural incomes.

专栏14:促进居民消费升级 新华社发

Box 14: Upgrading Consumer Spending
另一方面,精准扩大有效投资。加大关键领域和薄弱环节补短板工作力度,带动有效投资的扩大,增加有效供给。2017年全社会固定资产投资预期增长9.0%左右。拟安排中央预算内投资5076亿元,集中用于重大战略、重大工程和重点建设任务。着力激发民间投资活力,认真落实有关鼓励支持政策,向民间资本进一步放开基础电信领域竞争性业务、油气勘探开发、国防科技等领域的市场准入。创新投融资方式,继续规范推广政府和社会资本合作,筛选和推介一批有较好现金流、有稳定回报预期的项目。强化投资监管,创新稽察监管方式,实行网上全面监测,深化现场稽察。

On the other hand, we will make targeted efforts to increase effective investment.

We will enhance efforts to bolster weaknesses in key areas and links in need of attention, so as to increase effective investment and effective supply. Total fixed-asset investment is projected to increase by around 9.0% in 2017. Investment from the central government budget is expected to be 507.6 billion yuan for the year; these funds will be channeled toward major strategic initiatives, major projects, and key construction tasks.

We will also work to stimulate private investment, earnestly implementing policies to provide encouragement and support, and further relaxing restrictions on the entry of private capital into competitive operations of basic telecommunications, exploration and exploitation of oil and gas, and defense-related science and technology. New modes of investment and financing will be created. In addition, we will continue to standardize and apply the PPP model, selecting and going ahead with projects that have adequate cash flow and expectations of steady returns. With a view to enhancing regulation over investment, we will develop new inspection and regulation methods, carry out comprehensive online monitoring, and intensify field inspections.

(四)持续深化重要领域和关键环节改革。抓好已出台改革举措落地实施,更好发挥改革牵引作用。

4. Continuing to deepen reforms in major areas and key sectors

We will work to ensure that reform measures which have been already issued are fully implemented so as to give better expression to the leading role of reform.

一是全力推进简政放权放管结合优化服务改革。再削减一批行政审批事项,全面清理调整生产许可证、经营许可证。推动关联、相近类别审批事项整体取消或下放。制定工商登记前置审批事项清单和企业设立后的经营许可清单,确需保留的实行多证合一,扩大“证照分离”改革试点。实现“双随机、一公开”监管全覆盖,推进综合执法改革。大力推行“互联网+政务服务”,开展“减证便民”专项行动。按照登记机构、登记簿册、登记依据和信息平台“四统一”要求,进一步扩大不动产统一确权登记的覆盖面,基本建成覆盖全国的信息平台。

1) We will press ahead with reforms to streamline administration, delegate more powers, improve regulation, and provide better services.

We will cancel the requirement for government review for another group of matters, and thoroughly review and accordingly adjust manufacturing and operating permits. We will target related or similar matters and simultaneously delegate the power or cancel the government-review requirement for all of them. We will draw up a pre-business registration list for items requiring government approval and a post-business registration list for permitted operations, roll all licenses and certificates which must not be cancelled into one unified business license, and expand trial reforms to separate operating permits and business licenses.

The oversight model drawing on inspections of randomly selected entities by randomly selected inspectors and the public release of inspection results will be implemented across the board, and the reform for coordinated law enforcement will be advanced. We will strive to implement the Internet Plus government services model, and carry out a campaign to cut down on requirements for administrative certification so as to ensure greater convenience for the people. In line with the requirements for unified registration agencies, register books, bases for registration, and information platforms, we will expand the scope of the unified system for determining and registering immovable property rights, and will work to put in place a corresponding nationwide information platform.

二是深化国企国资和重点行业改革。基本完成公司制改革。形成有效制衡的公司法人治理结构、灵活高效的市场化经营机制。加快国有资本投资、运营公司试点。推动电力、石油、天然气、铁路、民航、电信、军工等领域混合所有制改革试点。支持民营企业参与国有企业改革。抓好电力和石油天然气体制改革,有序放开发用电计划,扩大市场化交易规模。适度有序放开油气勘查开采等竞争性业务,完善油气进出口管理体制。完善食盐储备和监管机制。

2) We will deepen reform of SOEs, state capital, and key industries.

The reform to introduce corporate system in SOEs will be basically completed. A corporate governance structure that ensures effective checks and balances and a market operation mechanism that is highly efficient and flexible will be put in place. We will quicken the pace of trials to establish state capital investment and management companies, advance the pilot reforms to introduce a mixed ownership structure in electricity, petroleum, natural gas, railway, civil aviation, telecommunications, defense, and other sectors, and support private enterprises in participating in the reform of SOEs.

We will step up efforts to advance structural reforms in the electricity, petroleum,and natural gas sectors, adopting a methodical approach to lifting restrictions on the generation and industrial consumption of electricity and increasing the level of market-based transactions. We will proceed in an orderly manner with appropriately relaxing controls over competitive operations such as petroleum and natural-gas exploration and exploitation, and improve the petroleum and natural-gas import and export management system. Mechanisms regarding the reserve and oversight of salt will be improved.

三是深化投融资体制改革。贯彻落实深化投融资体制改革的意见、企业投资项目核准和备案管理条例、政府核准的投资项目目录(2016年本)。出台政府投资条例,出台企业投资项目核准和备案管理办法。支持在一定领域、区域内试点企业投资项目承诺制。开展金融机构持有企业股权试点,完善保险资金等机构资金对项目建设的投资机制。

3) We will deepen reform of the investment and financing systems.

We will implement the guidelines on deepening reform of the investment and financing systems, the regulations for managing the approval and recording of enterprise-funded projects, and the catalog of investment projects requiring government review (2016). The regulations on government investment and the measures for managing the approval and recording of enterprise-funded projects will be issued.

We will support certain localities and sectors in piloting mechanisms which allow investment projects to proceed on the basis of an undertaking submitted by enterprises to government. We will carry out trials for financial institutions to become enterprise shareholders, and improve the mechanisms whereby institutional funds, such as insurance funds, invest in projects.

四是纵深推进价格改革。在全国范围内基本完成省级电网输配电价改革,公布所有省级电网输配电价,启动东北、西北等区域电网输配电价改革试点,研究制定地方电网和新增配电网配电价格,推进具备条件的发电、售电价格通过市场形成。完善新能源价格机制和补贴办法。制定跨省天然气管道运输价格。继续推进医疗服务价格改革,全面推开城市公立医院医药价格改革,开展按病种收费工作。

4) We will deepen price reform.

We will basically complete nationwide reform of electricity-transmission and -distribution prices on provincial-level grids, with all prices being made available to the public. We will initiate trial price reforms for electricity transmission and distribution through regional power grids in the northeast and northwest, set prices for electricity distribution through local and newly-built power grids, and promote market-based pricing for the generation and supply of electricity where conditions allow. Improvements will be made to the pricing mechanisms and subsidy measures for new energy. We will set prices for natural gas transmission through trans-provincial pipelines. We will press ahead with price reform of medical services, advancing across the board price reforms of medical care and medicine in urban public hospitals and charging for medical treatment according to illness type.

五是营造公平竞争市场环境。落实完善产权保护制度依法保护产权的意见,加强产权保护制度建设。激发非公有制经济活力,积极构建新型政商关系。出台实施激发和保护企业家精神的意见。全面实施公平竞争审查制度,坚决遏制出台新的排除限制竞争的政策措施。严厉查处重大典型垄断案件,预防和制止垄断行为。推进社会信用体系建设。建立全国一体化的信用信息共享体系,扩大守信联合激励和失信联合惩戒领域。

5) We will develop a market based on fair competition.

In implementing the guidelines on improving the property rights protection system and ensuring law-based protection of property rights, we will redouble efforts to strengthen systems in this regard. We will enhance the vitality of the private sector, and work to develop a new relationship between government and business. We will issue and implement guidelines on nurturing and protecting entrepreneurialism. We will fully implement the review system to ensure fair competition, and resolutely prevent the promulgation of any policies and measures that eliminate or stifle competition. We will strictly investigate and prosecute major and typical antitrust cases, and work to prevent and curb monopolistic practices. Work on establishing the social credit system will be moved forward. We will put in place a nationally unified system for sharing information on credit, and extend to more areas the mechanism to provide joint incentives to those who act in good faith and to take joint punitive actions against those who act in bad faith.

专栏15:产权保护与企业家精神 新华社发

Box 15: Protection of Property Rights and Entrepreneurialism
六是稳妥推进财税和金融体制改革。加快推进中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革。制定中央与地方收入划分总体方案。健全地方税体系。规范地方政府举债行为。稳妥推进金融监管体制改革,加强金融宏观审慎管理制度建设。进一步完善人民币汇率市场化形成机制。健全国有商业银行治理结构,深化多层次资本市场体系改革,推动《证券法》修订,完善股票发行制度改革。加快发展现代保险服务业。

6) We will steadily advance reform of the fiscal, tax, and financial systems.

We will work faster to carry forward the reform to appropriately divide fiscal authority and spending responsibilities between the central and local governments. We will also draw up an overall plan for revenue sharing between the central and local governments. We will improve local tax systems and regulate the debt financing activities of local governments.

We will prudently advance reform of the financial oversight system, and improve the macro-prudential regulation system for the financial sector. The market-based mechanism for setting the RMB exchange rate will be further improved. We will refine the governance structure of state-owned commercial banks, deepen reform of the multilevel capital market system, move ahead with revising the Securities Law, and improve reform of the stock issuance system. We will accelerate development of modern insurance services.

(五)着力振兴实体经济。坚持创新驱动发展,以提高质量和核心竞争力为中心,坚持品牌引领升级,全面提高创新供给能力,促进新动能更快发展、新产业更快成长、传统产业更快改造提升、新旧动能加快接续转换。

5. Focusing on revitalizing the real economy

We will remain committed to ensuring innovation drives development forward, prioritize improving quality and core competitiveness, and ensure brand development leads the way in industrial upgrading. We will enhance overall capacity for making innovations and accelerate the development of new drivers of growth, the growth of new industries, the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, and the replacement of old drivers of growth with new ones.

一是加快培育壮大经济发展新动能。推动8个区域全面创新改革试验取得决定性进展,出台培育壮大新动能、互联网市场准入等政策文件。支持和引导分享经济发展,提高社会资源利用效率。建立国家科技决策咨询制度,改革科技评价制度,统筹推进中央财政科技计划和资金管理改革,开展以知识价值为导向的分配政策试点。加大对信息、民用空间、重大科技基础设施建设投入,支持北京怀柔、上海张江、安徽合肥综合性国家科学中心建设,建成一批产业创新中心,构建全国一体化的国家大数据中心体系。继续布局建设国家自主创新示范区。深入推进协同创新。扩大区域性成果转移转化试点示范,创建国家可持续发展议程创新示范区。继续实施国家科技重大专项,启动实施科技创新2030-重大项目。在重大创新领域启动组建国家实验室,建设一批国家技术创新中心。支持北京、上海建设科技创新中心。新建一批双创示范基地和专业化众创空间。实施院所、企业和社团三大创新创业活动,围绕创新创业平台市场化运行、创业人才培养等瓶颈制约,出台一批硬措施。发挥好创业投资引导基金作用,促进创业投资持续健康发展。打造全国双创活动周和“创响中国”品牌,持续营造良好氛围。

1) We will work faster to foster and develop new drivers for economic growth.

We will work to deliver decisive progress in pilot reforms for all-around innovation in eight areas. Policies will be introduced to foster and develop new drivers of growth and regulate internet market access. We will support and guide the development of the sharing economy to enable greater efficiency in the use of resources. We will establish a consultation system for national decisions on science and technology, reform the evaluation systems for science and technology, coordinate efforts to advance reform of the management of central government-funded science and technology initiatives and their funding, and pilot profit distribution policies oriented toward strengthening the value ascribed to knowledge.

We will increase investment for the construction of information, civil-space, and major science-and-technology infrastructure; support the establishment of comprehensive national science centers in Huairou in Beijing, Zhangjiang in Shanghai, and Hefei in Anhui; finish building a group of industrial innovation centers; and promote the establishment of a nationally unified system of big data centers. We will continue developing national innovation demonstration areas, intensify efforts to promote collaborative innovation, expand regional trials and demonstrations for the commercialization and application of scientific and technological advances, and build innovation demonstration zones for the National Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Major national science and technology projects will continue, and major projects of the Sci-Tech Innovation 2030 Agenda will be launched. National laboratories for major fields of innovation and a group of national technological innovation centers will be built. We will support the establishment of science and technology innovation centers in Beijing and Shanghai. Additional demonstration centers for entrepreneurship and innovation as well as maker spaces for specialized crowd innovation will also be opened.

We will undertake activities to encourage entrepreneurship and innovation among research institutes, enterprises, and social organizations, and will roll out a range of strong measures that focus on tackling those bottlenecks that are stifling the market-based operation of platforms for entrepreneurship and innovation and that are hindering the cultivation of entrepreneurial personnel. We will make good use of government funds for guiding venture capital to promote its sustained and sound development. We will work to further strengthen the brands of the National Week for Entrepreneurship and Innovation and the Innovating China Tour so as to build a sustainable, positive environment for entrepreneurship and innovation.

二是推动新兴产业持续健康发展。壮大战略性新兴产业,设立国家战略性产业发展基金,在新材料、新能源、人工智能、集成电路、生物制药、第五代移动通信等前沿战略性领域,发挥企业主体作用,以市场化方式布局一批系统性工程。推进“互联网+”和大数据重大工程,促进互联网、物联网、云计算与经济社会融合发展。进一步加大网络提速降费力度,降低创业创新成本促进产业升级。加强军民融合创新发展,推动太空、海洋和网络空间等领域军民融合重大示范项目建设。

2) We will work to promote the continued and sound development of emerging industries.

In order to strengthen strategic emerging industries, we will set up the National Strategic Industry Development Fund, and utilize market-based means to carry out a group of systemic projects that give full play to the principal role of enterprises in cutting-edge and strategically important fields, such as new materials, new energy, artificial intelligence, integrated circuits, biomedicine, and 5G mobile networks. We will press ahead with the "Internet Plus" and big data initiatives, and integrate the development of the internet, the Internet of Things, and cloud computing with economic and social development. We will further boost broadband speeds and lower rates for internet services so as to reduce the costs of innovation and business startup and support industrial upgrading. We will strengthen the innovation-driven, integrated development of the military and civilian sectors by advancing the development of major demonstration programs for military-civilian integration in space, marine, cyberspace, and other fields.

三是促进传统产业加快改造提升。深入实施《中国制造2025》。落实装备制造业质量品牌提升专项行动、消费品工业“三品”专项行动、服务型制造专项行动和制造业与互联网融合发展专项行动。提高质量标准,广泛开展质量提升行动,加强全面质量管理,夯实质量技术基础,强化质量监督。弘扬工匠精神,厚植工匠文化,完善激励机制,培育“中国工匠”,打造“中国品牌”。推进国家智能制造示范区、制造业创新中心建设,继续实施绿色制造工程、工业强基工程和高端装备创新工程。夯实工业基础,持续实施制造业升级改造重大工程包,重点支持企业智能化改造、基础能力提升、绿色制造推广、高端装备发展等10大工程。推动汽车产业转型升级。实施国家新型工业化产业示范基地卓越提升计划。推动原材料、交通、能源等基础产业转型升级,加快建设现代综合交通运输体系,全面实施能源生产和消费革命战略。

3) We will help accelerate the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries.

The Made in China 2025 initiative will be further implemented. We will launch campaigns to improve product quality and branding within the equipment manufacturing industry, to enhance product variety and quality and create name brands in the consumer goods industry, to strengthen service-embedded manufacturing, and to further integrate the internet into the manufacturing industry. We will work to ensure quality standards for manufacturing improve, carrying out extensive quality improvement activities and ensuring stronger all-around quality management.

We will consolidate the technological foundations for ensuring product quality and tighten quality supervision. We will promote workmanship, foster a culture of workmanship, and refine related incentive mechanisms. We will strive to see Chinese workers exemplify workmanship and Chinese brands enjoy international recognition.

We will press ahead with development of national demonstration zones for smart manufacturing as well as manufacturing innovation centers. We will continue to implement projects to promote green manufacturing, strengthen the foundations of industry, and spur innovation in high-end equipment manufacturing. We will strengthen the foundations of industry and continue to help implement the packages of major projects aimed at promoting transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry, with a focus on supporting 10 major projects, including those to promote smart-technology upgrades by enterprises, improve basic capacity, advance green manufacturing, and develop high-end equipment. We will work to promote transformation and upgrading of the automobile industry. The plan to upgrade national demonstration centers for new industrialization will be put into action. We will promote the transformation and upgrading of raw materials, transportation, energy, and other basic industries with a view to expediting the development of modern comprehensive transportation systems, and implementing the strategy for revolutionizing energy generation and consumption.

四是推进服务经济创新发展。研究出台服务经济创新发展大纲,深入实施新一轮服务业综合改革试点,加快培育服务业新业态新模式。开展服务业补短板专项行动,提升服务质量,推进标准化发展,强化知识产权服务。推进高技术服务业创新工程。

4) We will advance innovation-driven development of the service economy.

Guidelines on the innovation-driven development of the service economy will be worked out, and a new round of comprehensive trial reforms will be undertaken to accelerate the development of new types and models of business in the service sector. We will carry out dedicated campaigns to bolster points of weakness in the service sector with a focus on improving quality, promoting standardized development, and providing better IPR services. We will continue to implement projects to promote innovation in high-tech services.

(六)以三大战略引领区域协调协同发展。充分发挥各地区比较优势,实施差别化区域发展政策,加快培育形成新的增长轴、增长带。

6. Utilizing the Three Initiatives to pursue coordinated and integrated development between regions.

Making full use of the comparative strengths of each region, we will adopt differentiated policies to promote their development, and accelerate efforts to cultivate new growth axes and growth belts.

一是扎实推进三大战略。贯彻落实习近平总书记在推进“一带一路”建设工作座谈会上的重要讲话精神,聚焦重点地区、重点国家、重大标志性项目,积极开展务实合作,推动合作协议和合作规划实施。疏控结合推进北京非首都功能有序疏解,协调加快北京城市副中心等功能承接平台规划建设,持续推进交通、生态、产业三个重点领域率先突破,强化创新、改革、试点三个关键支撑,推进基本公共服务共建共享,支持北京服务业深化改革扩大开放综合试点。坚持生态优先、绿色发展,实施长江经济带建设水环境治理、水生态修复、水资源保护工程,推动航道畅通、枢纽互通、江海联通、关检直通,推进黄金水道重大项目,建立负面清单管理制度。

1) We will effectively carry out the Three Initiatives.

We will put into practice the guiding principles from General Secretary Xi Jinping's important speech at the conference on developing the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. Focusing on key areas, pivotal countries, and signature projects, we will proactively engage in practical collaboration and implement cooperation agreements and plans.

A combination of relocations and restrictions will be used in working to relieve Beijing of functions non-essential to its role as capital. We will work to coordinate and accelerate the planning and building of Beijing's sub-administrative center as well as other platforms for accommodating relocated functions. We will continue to strive for breakthroughs in the three key areas of transportation, ecological conservation, and industry, while also strengthening the three key pillars of innovation, reform, and pilot projects. We will promote the joint development and sharing of basic public services, and support comprehensive trials for deeper reform and greater opening up of Beijing's service sector.

With a continued focus on ecological conservation and green development, we will move ahead with projects to improve the water environment, restore water ecosystems, and conserve water resources in building the Yangtze Economic Belt. We will work to ensure ease of navigation on waterways, connectivity between transportation hubs, integrated river-ocean transportation, and simplified customs clearance procedures. We will advance major projects for the Yangtze golden watercourse initiative and establish a negative-list management system.

二是优化区域发展格局。全面实施西部大开发“十三五”规划,加强基础设施薄弱环节建设和生态环境保护,加快特色优势产业转型升级发展。全面实施新一轮东北地区等老工业基地振兴重大政策和重点任务,推动实施东北振兴“十三五”规划,组织东北地区和东部地区部分省市开展对口合作,加大对城区老工业区、独立工矿区改造和采煤沉陷区综合治理支持力度。全面实施促进中部地区崛起“十三五”规划,支持汉江、淮河生态经济带加快发展,办好山西可持续发展综改试验区。支持东部地区加快率先转型发展,进一步发挥改革创新示范引领作用。统筹加强国内国际区域合作,支持重要功能平台建设。大力推进陆海统筹发展。加快推进革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区和集中连片特困地区基础设施和公共服务设施建设,推动融入国家重大发展战略。加大中央支持和对口支援力度,继续支持新疆、西藏和四省藏区发展。

2) We will work to improve the layout of regional development.

We will fully carry out the plan for the large-scale development of the western region during the 13th Five-Year Plan period, shoring up weak links in infrastructure, promoting ecological conservation, and accelerating the transformation and upgrading of competitive industries that draw on local strengths.

We will fully implement a new round of major policies and plans aimed at revitalizing the northeast and other old industrial bases. We will also put into action the plan for the revitalization of the northeast during the 13th Five-Year Plan period, establish cooperative partnerships between provinces and municipalities in the northeast and in the eastern region, and step up support for the relocation or rebuilding of old industrial areas within cities and independent industrial and mining areas as well as for comprehensive efforts to improve the conditions of areas affected by mining-induced subsidence.

We will ensure full implementation of the plan for the rise of the central region during the 13th Five-Year Plan period, accelerate the development of the eco-economic belts along the Han and Huai rivers, and ensure smooth operation of the experimental zone for comprehensive reform to promote sustainable development in Shanxi.

We will support the eastern region in increasing the pace as it spearheads economic transformation and development, and work to further leverage its role as a model and leader of reform and innovation.

We will enhance domestic and international regional cooperation in a coordinated way, support the development of major function platforms, and work hard to coordinate land and marine development.

We will accelerate the building of infrastructure and public service facilities in old revolutionary base areas, ethnic minority areas, border areas, and contiguous poor areas; all these efforts will be incorporated into major national development strategies. We will continue to support the development of Tibet and Xinjiang, and the Tibetan ethnic areas in the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, and Qinghai, providing greater central government support as well as paired assistance.

专栏16:优化区域发展格局 新华社发

Box 16: Better Layout of Regional Development
三是扎实推进新型城镇化。以人的城镇化为核心,深化户籍制度改革,推动居住证制度全覆盖,将农业转移人口有序纳入住房公积金缴存覆盖范围,提高城镇化质量。加快编制粤港澳大湾区、海峡西岸、关中平原、呼包鄂榆等城市群发展规划,启动国家中心城市布局建设,推动一批具备条件的县和特大镇有序设市。促进“多规合一”,提升城市规划设计水平。加快城市市政基础设施改造与建设,加强城市地质调查,稳步推进地下综合管廊建设和地下管线综合管理,有效治理交通拥堵等“城市病”。深入推进美丽特色小(城)镇、美丽乡村建设。发挥新型城镇化对新农村建设、农村一二三产业融合发展带动作用,推动易地扶贫搬迁与新型城镇化有机结合。

3) We will steadily drive forward New Urbanization.

With a focus on increasing the number of urban residents, we will deepen reform of the household registration system, work to achieve full coverage of the residence certification system, and bring people with rural household registration living in cities under the housing provident scheme in a well-ordered way, so as to raise the overall quality of urbanization. We will move faster to formulate city-cluster development plans for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao greater bay area, the western shore of the Taiwan Straits, the Guanzhong Plains region, and the Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin region. In addition, we will launch the national initiative to develop principal cities and elevate eligible counties and very large towns into cities in an orderly manner. Efforts will be made to integrate various types of local urban plans into a single master plan to ensure better urban planning and design. We will accelerate the upgrading and building of municipal infrastructure, step up work relating to urban geological surveys, steadily move ahead with the construction of urban utility tunnels and the comprehensive management of underground pipelines and cables, and take effective measures to deal with traffic congestion and other urban maladies.

We will do more to see that beautiful small towns and cities with unique features and beautiful villages are developed. We will leverage the leading role of New Urbanization to spur on the building of a new countryside and the integrated development of the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in rural areas and will coordinate efforts to relocate people from inhospitable areas with the advancement of New Urbanization.

图表12:常住人口城镇化率 新华社发

Figure 12. Permanent Urban Residents as a Percentage of Total Population
(七)推进更深层次更高水平的双向开放。加强统筹谋划,注重协调内外,把扩大开放、优化服务、强化监管有效结合起来,培育国际竞争合作新优势。

7. Promoting deeper, higher-level bidirectional opening up

We will enhance overall coordination and planning, particularly between efforts at home and abroad; integrate efforts to further open up, improve services, and enhance regulation; and strive to carve out new competitive edges in international markets.

一是更加扎实有效推进“一带一路”建设。加快推进六大国际经济合作走廊建设,实施好瓜达尔、比雷埃夫斯、汉班托塔等重要港口建设运营,稳步推进印尼雅万高铁、俄罗斯莫喀高铁、中老铁路、中泰铁路、马新铁路、匈塞铁路等项目,进一步打造中欧班列统一品牌。高质量办好“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛。积极务实推进国际产能合作,完善产能合作重点项目库,推进产能合作示范区建设,带动装备、技术、标准、服务走出去。重点推动中白工业园、埃及苏伊士经贸合作区、马中关丹产业园等境外经贸产业园区建设。继续推进跨境(边境)经济合作区建设。推动网上丝绸之路建设合作。加强教育、科技、文化、卫生、旅游等人文交流合作。

1) We will deliver more concrete results in developing the Belt and Road.

We will accelerate the development of the six major international economic cooperation corridors, ensure the smooth construction and operation of important ports such as Gwadar, Piraeus, and Hambantota, steadily push ahead with the high-speed railway projects to connect Jakarta and Bandung in Indonesia and Moscow and Kazan in Russia, as well as the railway projects to connect China and Laos, China and Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore, and Hungary and Serbia, and further strengthen the brand of China-Europe freight train services. We will strive to make a great success of the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation.

We will actively advance concrete international cooperation on industrial capacity, build up a reserve of projects, and establish demonstration zones, so as to promote Chinese equipment, technology, standards, and services in going global. Efforts will be stepped up to develop the China-Belarus Industrial Park, the China-Egypt Suez Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone, Malaysia-China Kuantan Industrial Park, and other overseas economic-trade and industrial parks. We will continue to build cross-border (border-area) economic cooperation zones and promote cooperation on developing the Online Silk Road. We will increase personal and cultural exchange and cooperation in education, science and technology, culture, health, and tourism.

二是推动对外贸易继续回稳向好。落实和完善促进外贸发展政策,充分发挥出口信用保险作用,对成套设备出口融资应保尽保。设立服务贸易创新发展引导基金。继续开展市场采购贸易、外贸综合服务企业等试点,推进优势农产品走出去。加快外贸转型升级示范基地建设。支持加工贸易向产业链高端延伸、向中西部地区梯度转移。提升贸易便利化水平,在全国范围内推广国际贸易单一窗口建设,实现全国通关一体化。增加先进技术设备和关键零部件进口。推进区域全面经济伙伴关系协定谈判,继续推进亚太自贸区建设。妥善应对贸易摩擦,维护我国合法权益。

2) We will work to sustain the steady recovery and growth of foreign trade.

We will implement and improve policies for promoting foreign trade, give full play to the role of export-credit insurance, and ensure export financing insurance is provided for all complete sets of equipment that are insurable. A seed fund will be set up to encourage innovation in the development of services trade. We will proceed with trials in market purchases trade and in the development of enterprises that provide comprehensive foreign trade services, and promote the export of competitive agricultural products. We will work faster to build demonstration centers for transformation and upgrading of foreign trade. We will encourage the processing trade to extend toward the high end of the industrial chain and to gradually relocate to the central and western regions.

We will increase trade facilitation by ensuring that both the Single Window System for international trade is implemented and customs clearance procedures are integrated nationwide. The import of advanced technology and equipment and key spare parts and components will be increased. We will advance negotiations on establishing the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and continue to advance the building of the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific. We will properly handle trade frictions and safeguard China's legitimate rights and interests.

三是进一步优化外资营商环境。出台实施扩大开放积极利用外资若干措施、新版外商投资产业指导目录、中西部地区外商投资优势产业目录,进一步扩大开放领域,简化管理程序。更加积极推进自由贸易试验区建设,围绕重点任务和薄弱环节继续深化改革探索,力争取得更多可复制推广的制度创新成果。完善外商投资企业外债管理制度。2017年非金融类外商直接投资预期与2016年持平。

3) We will further improve the business environment for foreign investment.

We will issue and implement the measures for greater opening up to and dynamic use of foreign capital, the revised Catalog of Industries for Foreign Investment, and the Catalog of Industries with Local Strengths in the Central and Western Regions for Foreign Investment, so as to ensure more areas are opened up and procedures are streamlined. We will take a more proactive approach to building pilot free trade zones; focusing on priority tasks and weak links, we will continue to explore ways to deepen reform and work to produce more institutional innovations that can be replicated. We will improve the system for managing the foreign debt of foreign-funded enterprises. China's non-financial foreign direct investment for 2017 is projected to be similar to that of last year.

四是引导对外投资健康有序发展。加强对外投资活动的真实性审查,建立不良记录名单制度,实施国有企业对外投资资本金制度,防范对外投资过快增长风险。健全对外投资促进政策和服务体系,引导企业有序合规走出去。2017年非金融类境外直接投资预期与2016年基本持平。

4) We will guide healthy and orderly development of outbound investment.

We will make the reviews for verifying the authenticity of outbound investment more stringent, draw up a blacklist in this regard, introduce a system of capital contribution requirements for SOEs' outward investment, and work to prevent outward investment from rising excessively fast. We will refine the service system and policies for promoting outward investment, and provide guidance to ensure Chinese businesses go global in a well-regulated and orderly manner. China's non-financial outward direct investment in 2017 is projected to be roughly the same as last year.

图表13:非金融类外商直接投资和境外直接投资 新华社发

Figure 13. Non-Financial Inward and Outward Foreign Direct Investment
(八)加快推动绿色发展。深入推进生态文明建设,全面促进资源节约,扩大生态产品供给,推动环境质量总体改善,加快建设美丽中国。

8. Working faster to advance green development

We will intensify efforts to deliver ecological progress, take comprehensive measures to promote resource conservation, increase the supply of green products, and bring about an all-around improvement in the quality of the environment, so as to ensure the building of a Beautiful China proceeds at a faster pace.

一是深化生态文明体制改革。积极推进国家生态文明试验区建设。开展健全国家自然资源资产管理体制试点。全面推进划定并严守生态保护红线,推进实施全民所有自然资源资产有偿使用制度改革,制定领导干部自然资源资产离任审计暂行规定。开展生态文明建设目标评价,发布2016年度省级地区绿色发展指数。实现中央环境保护督察全覆盖,推进省以下环保机构监测监察执法垂直管理制度改革试点。推动生态环境损害赔偿制度改革。健全绿色金融体系,加大绿色债券发行力度。

1) We will deepen structural reform for promoting ecological progress.

We will work proactively to establish national pilot zones for ecological progress. Trials will be carried out to improve the national natural resource asset management system. All-around efforts will be made to establish and strictly enforce red lines for ecological conservation. We will push ahead with reform of the system for payment-based use of state-owned natural resource assets, and formulate provisional measures for auditing outgoing officials' management of these assets.

Evaluations will be conducted to assess performance in relation to ecological conservation targets, and provincial-level green growth indicators for 2016 will be published. We will strive to achieve nationwide coverage of central government environmental inspections, and advance trials for reforming the system that places the monitoring, supervision, and law enforcement activities of environmental bodies below the provincial level directly under the leadership of provincial-level environmental bodies. We will move forward with the efforts to reform the compensation system for ecological and environmental damage, improve the green finance system, and issue more bonds for launching eco-friendly initiatives.

二是完善主体功能区制度。制定完善主体功能区战略和制度的意见。启动全国和各省(区、市)主体功能区规划修订工作。加快推动省级空间规划试点,制定编制市县空间规划指导意见。制定落实生态保护红线、环境质量底线、资源利用上线和环境准入负面清单的技术规范,推动战略和规划环评落地。制定建立国家公园体制总体方案。制定建立资源环境承载能力监测预警长效机制的意见,在长江经济带开展监测预警。严格实行重点生态功能区产业准入负面清单制度。制定海洋主体功能区建设配套政策。开展省级国土规划编制。

2) We will improve the functional zoning system.

Guidelines will be formulated to improve the functional zoning strategy and system. Work will begin on revising both the national plan for functional zoning and the corresponding plans of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government. We will move faster to promote trials on provincial-level spatial planning, and also issue guidelines on the formulation of prefecture- and county-level spatial plans. We will draw up technical standards for enforcing red lines for ecological conservation, setting the threshold for environmental quality, imposing a ceiling on resource utilization, and implementing a negative list of environmental standards for market access, and will see that environmental impact assessments for strategies and plans are put in place.

We will draw up an overall plan for establishing a national park system. We will work out guidelines on creating long-term monitoring and early-warning mechanisms for environmental and resource carrying capacity, and begin monitoring and early-warning work along the Yangtze Economic Belt. Negative lists of industries will be strictly implemented for key ecosystem service zones. Supporting policies for establishing marine functional zones will be produced. We will also begin work on formulating provincial-level land plans.

三是进一步提高资源利用效率。落实“十三五”节能减排综合工作方案。开展能源、水、土地资源消耗总量和强度“双控”,实施全民节能行动、重点用能单位“百千万”行动和能效“领跑者”引领行动,推进用能权有偿使用和交易试点,实施多能互补系统集成优化工程,减少弃水弃风弃光。推进全民节水行动,建立水效标识制度,加大非常规水源利用力度。实施循环发展引领行动,制定“互联网+”资源循环行动方案,支持园区循环化改造、资源循环利用产业示范基地、废弃物综合利用基地建设。

3) We will ensure more effective use of resources.

The overall work plan for energy conservation and emissions reduction during the 13th Five-Year Plan period will be put into effect. We will work to curb the total amount and intensity of energy, water, and land consumption; launch the Nation of Energy Savers Initiative, the "100-1,000-10,000" energy conservation program*, and the Frontrunner Program for Energy Conservation; drive forward trials on paying for and trading energy-use rights; and implement the project to promote the integration and optimization of the energy mix, so as to ensure less water, wind, and solar power lies idle.

We will get everyone saving water, put in place a water efficiency labeling scheme, and redouble our efforts to utilize alternative water resources. We will launch an initiative to guide circular development, formulate the Internet Plus Resource Recycling Action Plan, promote circular operations within industrial parks, and support the establishment of demonstration centers for the resource recycling industry and centers for the comprehensive use of waste.

* The 100-1,000-10,000 energy conservation program aims to put the top 100 energy consuming enterprises in China under regulation of the central government, the top 1,000 energy consuming enterprises under the regulation of their respective provincial-level governments, and a further 10,000 plus high-energy consuming enterprises under the regulation of lower-level governments.

四是强化环境治理和生态保护。深入实施大气、水、土壤污染治理“三大行动计划”。大力推进大气污染治理,完善重污染天气预警机制,实施京津冀地区大气污染防治强化措施,开展京津冀及周边、长三角、珠三角等重点地区和重点城市煤炭消费减量替代和污染防治,推进北方地区冬季清洁取暖,全面实施散煤综合治理,完成以电代煤、以气代煤300万户以上。建立水污染防治预警和综合督导机制,制定实施重点流域水污染防治“十三五”规划、长江经济带生态环境保护规划。创新河湖管护体制机制,全面推行河长制。开展城市生态修复试点示范,全面推进城市生态修复。加大城市黑臭水体治理力度,提升城镇污水处理再生利用设施系统整体效能。推进重点城市实施生活垃圾强制分类制度,加快建设垃圾分类投放、收运和处理设施。稳步推进控制污染物排放许可制,开展农村生活垃圾分类和资源化利用百县示范。建立以排污许可证管理为核心的固定污染源环境管理制度体系,严控入河排污总量。积极开展环境污染第三方治理。全面开展全国土壤污染状况详查,加快推动土壤污染防治法立法,制定或修订农用地、建设用地土壤环境质量等标准。实施工业污染源全面达标排放计划。全面开展国家生态安全屏障建设,积极推进大规模国土绿化行动,实施山水林田湖生态保护和修复工程、生物多样性保护重大工程。继续实施退耕还林还草、退牧还草、重点防护林体系、天然林资源保护、水土流失综合治理等工程,开展流域水环境综合治理与可持续发展试点示范,推进退耕还湿、退养还滩。严格管控围填海。建立自然保护区遥感监测体系,强化自然保护区监管。

4) We will strengthen environmental governance and ecological conservation.

We will fully implement the major action plans for addressing air, water, and soil pollution. Every effort will be made to tackle air pollution; we will strengthen early-warning mechanisms for severe air pollution and ensure that tougher measures are implemented to prevent and control air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, that efforts to cut coal consumption, replace it with alternative energy, and prevent and control its pollution are made in key areas and cities - including in and around the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta - that more clean energy sources are used for winter heating across northern China, and that comprehensive measures are taken to ensure cleaner use of coal in non-industrial sectors and to substitute coal with electricity or natural gas in more than 3 million households.

We will put in place an early-warning and integrated-oversight system for the prevention and control of water pollution, formulate the plan for the prevention and control of water pollution in key water basins during the 13th Five-Year Plan period, and implement the program to advance ecological conservation and environmental protection along the Yangtze Economic Belt. New systems and mechanisms to manage and protect rivers and lakes will be established and the river chief system will be implemented across the board.

Pilot and demonstration projects will be carried out to move ahead with all-around ecological restoration in cities. We will make greater efforts to improve black, malodorous water bodies in cities, and increase the overall effectiveness of urban sewage treatment and recycling facilities. We will encourage key cities to carry out mandatory household waste classification and to move faster in building facilities for sorting, collecting, transporting, and disposing of waste. We will steadily advance the emissions permit system, and carry out demonstrations for sorting and recycling rural household waste in about 100 counties. We will establish an environmental management system for fixed pollution sources which is based on emissions permits, and strictly control the total amount of sewage dumped into rivers.

We will actively promote third-party participation in pollution control. An in-depth survey will be carried out throughout the country to assess the situation in relation to soil contamination, legislative work on the Law on Prevention and Control of Soil Pollution will be sped up, and standards for the quality of soil environments on agricultural land and construction land will be formulated or revised. We will ensure that emissions of all industrial polluters stay within emissions standards.

We will build national ecological security shields, push ahead with large-scale afforestation, and implement projects for ecological conservation and restoration in mountains, water bodies, and forests, and on farmland as well as major biodiversity protection projects. We will move ahead with the projects to return marginal farmland to forest or grassland and return grazing land to grassland, develop forest shelterbelts, protect natural forests, and comprehensively tackle soil erosion.

We will put in place pilot and demonstration programs to advance the comprehensive governance and sustainable development of the water environment in water basins, and will promote the return of cultivated land to wetland and the reduction of mudflat aquaculture so as to restore mudflat ecosystems. Strict control and oversight will be imposed over coastal reclamation activities. Remote sensing systems will be established in nature reserves to strengthen oversight.

五是积极应对气候变化。启动全国碳排放权交易市场。加快推进低碳试点示范、气候适应型城市建设试点。积极参与和引导《巴黎协定》后续谈判,精心运筹气候外交,做好国内履约工作。继续推动国际对话和务实合作,加强气候变化南南合作。

5) We will proactively respond to climate change.

A national market for carbon emissions rights will be put into operation. We will move quicker to carry out the low-carbon pilot and demonstration programs as well as the trials for developing climate resilient cities. We will actively participate and play a guiding role in the follow-up negotiations of the Paris Agreement, make every effort to promote climate diplomacy, and ensure efforts are carried out at home to fulfill our promises in the Agreement. We will continue to promote international dialogue and effective cooperation, and strengthen South-South cooperation on climate change.

(九)更加注重保障和改善民生。更好统筹民生改善与经济发展,织密扎牢民生保障网,努力提高公共服务水平和质量,持续增强人民群众获得感。

9. Doing more to safeguard and improve people's wellbeing

Better coordination will be achieved between the efforts to improve people's wellbeing and those to develop the economy. We will strive to make the social safety net tighter and sturdier, and to improve the standard and quality of public services, so that our people's sense of benefit continues to grow.

一是全力推进脱贫攻坚。巩固深化脱贫攻坚成果,加快实施易地扶贫搬迁、产业扶贫、转移就业扶贫等脱贫攻坚重点工程,大力实施以工代赈,支持贫困地区交通、水利、教育、卫生计生、文化、社会保障等基础设施和基本公共服务建设。研究支持边境居民脱贫奔小康、稳边固边政策措施。支持川陕等革命老区、赣南和闽粤原中央苏区开发建设与脱贫攻坚。稳妥推进贫困地区水电矿产资源开发资产收益扶贫改革试点。深入开展金融扶贫、健康扶贫、教育扶贫、交通扶贫、旅游扶贫、电商扶贫,做好因病等致贫返贫群众帮扶。推动网络扶贫试点省建设。

1) We will put every effort into fighting poverty.

We will consolidate and build on our achievements made in the fight against poverty so far and speed up implementation of key poverty alleviation projects, such as relocating people from inhospitable areas, supporting the development of local industries, and providing job-seeking assistance. We will boost efforts to carry out work-relief programs, and will support the development in poor areas of infrastructure and basic public services, such as transportation, water conservancy, education, health care and family planning, cultural services, and social security.

We will work on policies and measures to help people in border regions eliminate poverty and achieve moderate prosperity with a view to stabilizing and consolidating our frontier. We will support development and poverty relief work in old revolutionary base areas, such as the Sichuan-Shaanxi region and the former Central Soviet areas in southern Jiangxi, Fujian, and Guangdong. We will prudently carry out the pilot poverty-relief reform which enables people in poor areas to share in the proceeds from the exploitation of local hydropower and mineral resources. We will make further efforts to fight poverty by providing access to and improving financial services, health care, education, transportation, and e-commerce, and by developing the tourism industry in local areas; in addition, we will provide support and assistance to people who have been driven into, or have fallen back into, poverty because of medical expenses. Provincial-level trials to use internet-based initiatives to alleviate poverty will be carried out.

二是深入实施就业优先战略。持续推进重点群体就业创业。实施好高校毕业生就业促进、创业引领、基层成长等计划,切实做好退役军人安置工作。围绕培育返乡创业产业集群、发展农村电商、化解过剩产能发展接续产业等重点,继续扩大支持农民工等人员返乡创业试点覆盖范围。妥善做好煤炭、钢铁行业化解过剩产能过程中职工分流安置工作。加强基层就业服务设施和公共实训基地建设,强化就业援助,提高公共就业服务能力。

2) We will fully implement the strategy of prioritizing employment.

Priority groups will continue to receive support in starting businesses and finding jobs. Initiatives will be implemented to promote employment for college graduates, to guide them in starting businesses, and to encourage them to work at community level; and efforts will be made to see that demobilized military personnel are resettled in new jobs. We will further expand trials to provide support for migrant workers and others who return to their hometown to set up businesses, with a focus on creating industrial clusters in local areas for these returnees, promoting rural e-commerce, and reducing overcapacity and developing alternative industries. We will properly resettle and provide reemployment services for people laid off due to the scaling down of overcapacity in the coal and steel industries. We will develop and improve community-based employment service facilities and public vocational training centers, and strengthen employment assistance, thereby boosting the capacity of public employment services.

三是强化社保兜底。推动基本养老保险制度改革和完善工作。加快城乡居民医疗保险制度整合。开展长期护理保险试点、生育保险和职工基本医疗保险合并实施试点。统筹推进社会救助体系建设。健全购租并举的住房制度,持续改善中低收入群众和困难群众住房条件。2017年,棚户区住房改造新开工600万套。继续推进农村危房改造,重点支持低保户、农村分散供养特困人员、贫困残疾人家庭和建档立卡贫困户。继续推进公租房等保障房建设。

3) We will strengthen social security so as to better meet people's basic needs.

We will work to reform and improve the basic old-age insurance system. Integration of the medical insurance schemes for rural and non-working urban residents will be stepped up. Pilot programs on long-term care insurance and the integration of maternity insurance with the basic medical insurance for urban workers will come into operation. We will coordinate the development of social assistance systems.

The housing system will be improved to encourage both buying and renting and to ensure the continuous improvement of housing conditions for both low- and middle-income groups and people facing difficulties. In 2017, we will begin renovations on six million units of housing in run-down urban areas and continue to rebuild dilapidated houses in rural areas, with a focus on supporting subsistence allowance beneficiaries; rural residents who receive assistance because of extreme poverty and do not live in a nursing home; families of people with disabilities living in poverty; and registered poor households. We will continue to develop government-subsidized housing including public rental housing.

四是健全基本公共服务体系。实施“十三五”推进基本公共服务均等化规划,建立基本公共服务清单制。改革高等教育招生计划管理,2017年,普通高等教育本专科招生735万人,研究生招生84.4万人。推进世界一流大学和一流学科建设。全面推开公立医院综合改革,全面启动多种形式的医疗联合体建设试点,建立促进优质医疗资源上下贯通的考核和激励机制。落实政府办医责任,实施全民健康保障工程,提升中西部县域内医疗卫生综合服务能力,加强疾病防控、妇幼保健机构能力建设。适应实施全面两孩政策,加强生育医疗保健服务。依法支持中医药事业发展。出台实施“十三五”国家老龄事业发展和养老体系建设规划。健全养老服务体系,实施养老护理人员培训计划。出台实施国家人口发展规划,推进落实全面两孩配套政策。切实加强妇女、未成年人、残疾人等社会群体权益保护。提高基本公共文化服务均等化水平,推动地方落实国家基本公共文化服务指导标准。推动创新公共文化服务供给方式,鼓励社会力量参与公共文化服务体系建设。繁荣发展哲学社会科学。实施全民健身计划,推进公共体育普及,推动实施足球中长期发展规划和足球场地设施建设规划。

4) We will improve the system of basic public services.

We will implement the plan for ensuring equitable access to basic public services during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. The system for a list of basic public services will be established. We will reform the management of the higher education admission scheme. In 2017, regular institutions of higher learning are projected to enroll 7.35 million undergraduate students and 844,000 graduate students. We will strengthen efforts to develop more world-class universities and first-class fields of discipline.

We will press ahead with the comprehensive reform of public hospitals nationwide, fully launch the trials to establish diverse forms of medical consortiums, and set up assessment and incentive mechanisms for ensuring quality medical resources are shared between different levels of medical institutions. We will ensure governments' responsibility of ensuring basic health care is fulfilled. We will implement the program to ensure a healthy population, and boost the capacity of counties in the central and western regions to offer comprehensive medical and health care services, as well as the capacity of institutions for disease prevention and control and for maternal and child care. As the policy of allowing couples to have two children has come into effect, we will provide better medical and health services related to childbirth. We will support the law-based development of traditional Chinese medicine.

We will introduce and implement the plan for developing elderly services and building the elderly care system during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. We will improve the system for elderly services, and implement the plan to train elderly-care workers. We will introduce and carry out the national population development plan, and work to ensure the implementation of the policy of allowing couples to have two children. We will, more effectively, safeguard the rights and interests of women, minors, people with disabilities, and other social groups.

We will ensure more equitable access to basic public cultural services and help localities to implement the national standards for guiding the provision of basic public cultural services. We will encourage innovation in the ways of delivering public cultural services as well as private-sector participation in developing the system of public cultural services. We will ensure that philosophy and the social sciences flourish.

We will promote public fitness programs, and boost the popularity of community sports. We will move ahead with the plan for the long- and medium-term development of soccer in China as well as the plan for the construction of soccer fields and facilities.

深化内地与香港、澳门的投资经贸合作,推动内地与港澳关于建立更紧密经贸关系安排(CEPA)升级。支持港澳参与和助力“一带一路”建设、区域经济合作,落实“十三五”规划《纲要》涉港澳工作。积极推进港珠澳大桥建设,促进粤港澳三地加快基础设施互联互通。加快前海、南沙、横琴等粤港澳合作平台建设,推动泛珠三角区域合作向更高层次、更深领域发展。支持香港发展创新和科技事业,巩固提升国际金融、航运、贸易三大中心地位,培育发展新优势。进一步支持澳门建设世界旅游休闲中心、中国与葡语国家商贸合作服务平台,支持澳门发展会展、特色金融、文化创意等产业和跨境电子商务,促进澳门经济适度多元发展。建设好平潭综合实验区、福州新区、中国(福建)自由贸易试验区等合作平台,深化海峡两岸经济交流合作。 We will deepen cooperation with Hong Kong and Macao in the areas of investment, the economy, and trade, and work to upgrade the Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) between the mainland and the two regions. We will support Hong Kong and Macao in participating in and contributing to the Belt and Road Initiative as well as regional economic cooperation. We will carry out work involving Hong Kong and Macao as part of the 13th Five-Year Plan. We will press ahead with the construction of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge so as to more quickly achieve a greater level of interconnectivity in infrastructure between Guangdong Province, Hong Kong, and Macao. Development of the Qianhai, Nansha, and Hengqin platforms for cooperation between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao will be accelerated, and regional cooperation in the pan-Pearl River Delta will be pushed to a higher level and made more substantive. We will support Hong Kong in its efforts to pursue innovation and develop science and technology, to consolidate and elevate its position as an international financial, shipping, and trade center, and to cultivate new strengths. We will provide further support for Macao in becoming a world tourism and leisure center and in building a platform to facilitate business and trade cooperation between China and Portuguese-speaking countries. We will also support Macao in developing industries such as convention and exhibition, specialized financial services, cultural & creative industries as well as cross-border e-commerce, so as to promote an appropriate level of diversity in its economy. We will ensure platforms for cooperation with Taiwan are successfully established, including the Pingtan Comprehensive Experimental Area, Fuzhou New Area, and the China (Fujian) Pilot Free Trade Zone, so as to deepen cross-Straits economic exchange and cooperation.
各位代表,做好2017年经济社会发展各项工作,任务艰巨,意义重大。我们要更加紧密地团结在以习近平同志为核心的党中央周围,高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,深入贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神和治国理政新理念新思想新战略,自觉接受全国人大监督,虚心听取全国政协意见建议,凝心聚力、改革创新,奋发有为、攻坚克难,促进经济社会平稳健康发展,以优异成绩迎接党的十九大胜利召开!

Esteemed Deputies,

Accomplishing the work for economic and social development in 2017 is both a demanding and important task. We will unite even closer around the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, take Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development as our guide, and fully implement the guidelines from General Secretary Xi Jinping's major political addresses as well as his new concepts, thoughts, and strategies on the governance of China. We will willingly accept the oversight of the NPC, and seek comments and suggestions from the CPPCC National Committee with an open mind. Let us pool our will and strength to promote reform and innovation, work hard to deliver a sound performance to overcome the difficulties ahead, and foster steady and sound economic and social development, so as to welcome the convocation of the 19th CPC National Congress with outstanding achievements.

Notes:

1. The 2016 Plan for National Economic and Social Development deliberated and passed at the Fourth Session of the Twelfth National People's Congress lists a total of 62 targets, of which 43 are anticipatory and 19 are obligatory. The 15 targets marked with a star mark are obligatory targets set forth in the Thirteenth Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China.

2. Anticipatory targets are development objectives that the government hopes to achieve and figures it expects to reach; however they are not compulsory targets, nor are they predicted figures. The actual figures may be higher or lower than projected. Obligatory targets are mandatory and binding; they represent the government's macro regulatory intentions, and must be achieved.

3. The performance of obligatory targets is assessed on the basis of whether or not they have been accomplished. A deviation of 10% from the projected figure is the standard used to assess the performance of anticipatory targets: if the actual figure exceeds the anticipatory figure by 10% or more, it is assessed as better than projected; if the actual figure falls short of the anticipatory figure by 10% or more, it is assessed as lower than projected; if the actual figure is higher or lower than the anticipatory figure by less than 10%, it is deemed to be as projected. However, these assessment standards are not applicable to targets that have a minimum or maximum limit. For example, the actual registered urban unemployment rate in 2016 was 4.02%, which falls short of the anticipatory target by more than 10%, but the assessment is still deemed to be as projected.

4. The figures marked with # are estimated figures for 2016; the actual figures will be confirmed following the final review and adjustments by relevant departments. Influenced by the adjustment of the base figures for 2015, the actual performance of some targets in 2016 may change somewhat.

(Source: Xinhua News Agency)